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clicca qui per visualizzare prodotti a base di Beta alanina

Perchè la beta-alanina

La carnosina muscolare è formata a partire da beta-alanina e l-istidina. Essendo quest’ultima presente in dosi relativamente alte rispetto alla beta-alanina, l’integrazione di beta-alaina diventa una strategia di eccellenza per aumentare i livelli di carnosina.

Uno studio dimostra una significativa correlazione tra l’assunzione di beta-alanina e la concentrazione di carnosina nel tessuto muscolare.

Come funziona la carnosina.

Durante l’esericizio fisico si liberano nei muscoli una grande quantità di ioni di idrogeno (acido lattico) che, se non tamponati, tendono ad abbassare il pH muscolare (aumentandone l’acidità).
Il nostro corpo produce naturalmente dei tamponi antiacido (ad es. la carnosina) che però risultano insufficienti quando l’intensità dell’esercizio fisico aumenta: qui gli ioni vengono prodotti con maggiore intensità e la tendenza all’acidosi muscolare diventa più alta.
Il punto in cui l’azione dei tamponi prodotti dal corpo diventa insufficiente contro gli ioni H+ (ioni di idrogeno da acido lattico) prodotti dallo sforzo coincide con una caduta del pH, un aumento dell’acidità e un conseguente peggioramento della performance.

Tra le varie sostanze che agiscono come tampone degli H+, quindi dell’acidosi muscolare, la carnosina è quella di gran lunga più efficace.
Alcuni studi dimostrano, ad esempio, importanti correlazioni tra la quantità di carnosina nei muscoli e la performance (espressa in watt prodotti).

La beta-alanina negli sport di resistenza

La soglia anaerobica è il più alto livello di intensità dell’esercizio che un’atleta può mantenere per un periodo di tempo prolungato (superiore ai 30 minuti) e coincide con il momento in cui, durante l’esercizio, l’organismo non riesce più a produrre tamponi per arginare l’acido lattico prodotto dallo sforzo e questo incomincia ad aumentare all’interno dei muscoli.

È opinione condivisa che la soglia aerobica sia uno dei più efficaci predittori della performance di endurance.

I risultati di uno studio effettuato su un training aerobico di 28 giorni ha dimostrato come l’integrazione di beta-alanina abbia alzato sensibilmente la soglia aerobica migliorando quindi la performance.


La beta-alanina negli sport di potenza

Negli sforzi di potenza, con l’aumentare dell’intensità dell’esercizio, la ventilazione aumenta in modo proporzionale fino al raggiungimento della soglia di ventilazione. Questa può essere fatta corrispondere (pur non essendo identica) con la produzione di acidosi sanguigna e muscolare. I tamponi sanguigni che servono a ridurre l’acidosi delle fibre muscolari conducono a un aumento del biosssido di carbonio che il corpo elimina aumentando la ventilazione.

L’aumento della soglia di ventilazione coincide, quindi, con una diminuzione dell’acidosi muscolare, con una conseguente velocizzazione del recupero e un generale miglioramento della performance.

Uno studio, della durata di 28 gg, condotto su soggetti che si allenano quotidianamente con esercizi brevi e intensi ha mostrato un notevole innalzamento della soglia di ventilazione con l’integrazione di beta-alanina rispetto a un abbassamento della stessa riscontrato in chi ha assunto placebo.


Zoeller, Stout, Kroy, Torok e Mielke, 2006, Journal of Amino Acids
Suzuki, Ito, Mukai, Takahashi, Takamatsu, 2002, Japanese Journal of Physiology 2/2002
Harris RC, Tallon MJ, Dunnett M, Boobis L. Coakley J, Kim HJ, Fallowfield JL, Hill CA. Sale C, Wise JA. Amino Acids May/2006
 

 

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E' uno degli aminoacidi più attivi nello stimolare il rilascio dell'ormone della crescita e per il recupero dopo l’attività sportiva. Un elevato livello naturale di ormone della crescita può facilitare la diminuzione dei tessuti adiposi, può accelerare la costruzione muscolare e può migliorare il recupero. Un aumento di GH endogeno ottenuto con metodi naturali non ha controindicazione.

Si consiglia di ciclizzare l'assunzione di nutrienti che stimolano il rilascio naturale di GH: 4-6 mesi di utilizzo continuo (tutti i giorni) e almeno 2 mesi di sosta, questo per non abituare l'organismo all'assunzione di questi nutrienti, che potrebbero divenire inefficaci al loro scopo se assunti in modo continuativo.

La ciclizzazione è consigliata per tutti i prodotti che stimolano il sistema endocrino. Per il recupero assumere il prodotto dopo gli allenamenti, per lo stimolo del GH assumere il prodotto prima di coricarsi a stomaco vuoto. Se il prodotto viene assunto per il recupero post allenamento (o gara) la ciclizzazione non si rende necessaria.

L’Arginina è indispensabile per la produzione di ossido nitrico (NO), tramite la conversione operata dall’enzima NO sintetasi, il quale converte l’arginina in ossido nitrico. L’ossido nitrico incrementa il flusso sanguigno ai muscoli, migliorando il trasporto di ossigeno e altri nutrienti. Un incremento del flusso sanguigno crea un effetto di pompaggio sui muscoli, simile a quello che si ottiene dopo un allenamento. l’effetto pompaggio è sempre unito ad un aumento del volume muscolare. L’incremento di trasporto dei nutrienti crea delle condizioni favorevoli alla formazione di nuovo tessuto muscolare. L’ossido nitrico (NO), incrementando il flusso sanguigno e il trasporto di nutrienti, favorisce anche il completo recupero dopo intensi allenamenti.

Un tipo di arginina particolarmente efficace per stimolare il rilascio di ossido nitrico è l’Arginina alfa chetoglutarato.

clicca qui per visualizzare prodotti a base di argininaAKG


Utilizzo:
per lo stimolo del GH 1 g circa di arginina ogni 10 kg di peso corporeo. Come stimolante del GH (ormone della crescita) va assunta a stomaco vuoto e a glicemia bassa, preferibilmente prima di coricarsi oppure prima dei pasti (le compresse 15-20 minuti prima dei pasti, le polveri o comunque prodotti da sciogliere in acqua 10 minuti circa prima dei pasti). Questo utilizzo dovrebbe produrre comunque un aumento di ossido nitrico. Per lo stimolo del rilascio di ossido nitrico, è possibile assumere l’arginina prima degli allenamenti.
 

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La carnosina è un buon tampone dell'acido lattico ed ha attività antiossidante. Effettivamente riduce il bruciore muscolare conseguente ad intensi allenamenti migliorando tangibilmente le prestazioni atletiche.

Il dosaggio efficace è nell'ordine dei grammi, diciamo da 1 a 5 grammi (il dosaggio potrebbe anche essere superiore ai 5 grammi) 30-60 minuti prima della prestazione.

Può essere utile anche l'assunzione nel giorno precedente la gara (da 1g a 5 g), per aumentare il livello di carnosina nei muscoli.

Oltre all'azione antiossidante, la carnosina è efficace nel bloccare le dannose reazioni tra zuccheri e proteine (reazione di Maillard o glicolizzazione) all'interno dell'organismo.

Queste reazioni sono fra le principali cause dell'invecchiamento e degenerazione cellulare.

La carnosina è l'unico nutriente naturale conosciuto con questa proprietà. La carnosina è quindi un nutriente importantissimo nella prevenzione dell'invecchiamento e degenerazione cellulare.

La carnosina è uno dei nutrienti più efficaci nel migliorare le prestazioni atletiche ed è un utilissimo nutriente con azione antiossidante e anti glicolizzazione, purtroppo il costo di produzione ancora elevatissimo di questo nutriente ne rallenta la sua diffusione.

un'ottima alternativa alla carnosina è il suo precursore Beta Alanina
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di carnitina>>

What is L Carnitine?
Acetyl l carnitine (ALC) is a metabolically active nutrient that has a wide spectrum of positive effects. It has similar metabolic effects to L-carnitine, but ALC passes more easily into the bloodstream than L-carnitine, and also crosses the blood brain barrier far more effectively than L-carnitine, where it has a number of positive effects on brain function. Both ALC and L-carnitine play an important role in the metabolism of food and are vital for the transport of long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria where they will be used for energy. Both are naturally occuring substances, found in small quantities in our diets - particularly in: milk, red meat, poultry and seafood. The human body is able to produce 20% of its L-carnitine needs from the essential amino acids methionine and lysine.

Who Should Consider Taking L Carnitine?
Anyone who is on a low calorie, vegetarian, low meat diet, or who trains intensively and for prolonged periods of time is prone to deficiencies in carnitine. L-carnitine is important for endurance athletes as its main function is to transport fatty acids inside the mitochondria (energy powerhouses within muscle cells) where oxidation of the fatty acids occurs, to produce energy. However, ALC passes more easily into the blood stream, and passes more freely into the mitochondria, where it has a greater work rate than L-carnitine. Research has also shown ALC to be more effective than L-carnitine (Hiat, 2004). ALC/l-carnitine supplementation is also believed to increase the use of fat for energy and therefore may be beneficial to people looking to loose weight.

Summary of L Carnitine's Phyiological Effects:

Increased delivery of oxygen to muscles
Reduces muscle damage and soreness
Helps to maintain normal testosterone levels
Helps to improve the rate of recovery following strenuous exercise
Believed to enhance fat metabolism
Has proved effective in the treatment of cardiac patients
The positive effects can last up to 60 days after treatment
Can improve mental function, alertness, and memory
Appears to be safe with no serious side effects

L Carnitine Research
It is well known that consumption of L-Carnitine has a protective effect on a number of cardiac diseases (Loster et al., 1993). Supplementation of L-carnitine protects against a deficiency within the inner cells of blood vessels (Hulsmann and Duebaar, 1988; Hiatt, 2004). This leads to improved delivery of oxygen to the working muscles both during and after exercise (Kraemer and Volek, 2000). Carnitine increases blood flow by improving the efficiency of fatty acid oxidation within the artery wall. It is also known to detoxify ammonia, a by-product of protein metabolism, that has been associated with early fatigue (Kanter and Williams, 1995). The improved blood supply during exercise is likely to improve performance, whilst the improved blood supply post exercise is likely to speed up recovery.

Many elite athletes have traditionally used L-carnitine to aid tolerance of high training loads and to speed recovery (Neumann et al., 2000). Research suggests that taking 1g per day during intense training periods may help to prevent decreases in muscle carnitine levels (Giamberardino et al., 1996). Improved recovery following L-carnitine supplementation is also supported by Volek et al., 2002, who demonstrated reduced: markers of muscle damage, reduced tissue damage, reduced muscle soreness as well as reduced levels of free radical damage.

As well as producing all of the physiological benefits described above, ALC has some additional benefits that won’t occur with plain L-carnitine supplemetation. Bidzinska et al., 1993, demonstrated that ALC supplementation helps to prevent a drop in testosterone production following periods of physical or mental stress. Further studies (Krsmanovic et al., 1994) have also demonstrated that ALC supplementation promotes the growth and activity of cells in the brain responsible for producing hormones that activate testosterone production. ALC may therefore help athletes to cope more effectively with the high levels of physical and mental stress associated with large training volumes. ALC acts as a general brain energizer by helping to maintain a constant supply of energy needed for normal brain function (Kidd, 1998; Kidd, 1999).

Supplementation of 2g of L-Carnitine has been demonstrated to reduce levels of muscle damage (Jeff et al 2002; Kraemer et al., 2003). Both of these research teams suggested that Carnitine supplementation may be particularly effective at improving the rate of recovery. There appears to be very clear evidence that L-carnitine supplementation has beneficial effects on training, competition, and recovery from strenuous training (Karlic and Lohminger, 2004). In this way ALC helps athletes to tolerate greater training loads, and therefore gives athletes the potential to train at higher levels with a reduced risk of overtraining.

One particularly promising aspect of L-carnitine supplementation is that it may have a long term positive effect that lasts beyond the supplementation period. Research looking at the positive effects of L-carnitine supplementation on cardiac patients found that exercise performance was still improved 60 days after supplementation was stopped (Loster et al., 1999). Therefore, you may still get a positive benefit from L-carnitine even when you have stopped taking it.

ALC has also been shown to improve mental function, alertness, reduce depression, improve memory, and to reduce the age associated decline in brain function (Cipolli and Chiari, 1990; Tempesta et al., 1990; Liu et al., 2002; McDaniel et al., 2003), and is particularly effective when combined with alpha lipoic acid (Liu et al.,2003).

Is L Carnitine effective? ALC appears to be highly effective at enhancing the rate of recovery from exercise, reducing muscle soreness, improving heart function, enhancing brain function, and speeding up the transport of fats into the mitochondria.

How to take L Carnitine?
The general recommendation for ALC/L-carnitine supplementation is 1-2g per day during periods of intensified training (Neumann et al., 2000). It is generally recommended that this is taken on an empty stomach in the morning or early afternoon – try not to take late in the evening as ALC may make you feel more alert and therefore make it harder to sleep. High doses should be avoided as the excess is likely to be excreted and therefore wasted. When training load is reduced, ALC/L-carnitine intake should be stopped. This is important as it helps to ensure that the body's own production of ALC/L-carnitine is not disrupted and remains active.

References

Bidzinska, B., Petraglia, F., Angioni, S., Genazzani, A. D., Criscuolo, M., Ficarra, G., Gallinelli, A., trentini, G. P. and Genazzani, A. R. (1993) Effect of different chronic intermittent stressors and acetyl-l-carnitine on hypothalmic beta-endorphin and GnRH on plasma testosterone levels in male rats. Neuroendocrinology. 57, 985-990.

Cipolli, C. and Chiari, G. (1990) Effects of L-acetylcarnitine on mental deterioration in the aged: initial results. Clin Ter. 132 (6 suppl), 479-510.

Giamberardino, m. A., Dragani, L., Valente, r., Di Lisa, F., Saggini, R. and Vecchiet, L. (1996) Effects of prolonged L-carnitine administration on delayed muscle pain and CK release after eccentric effort. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 17, 320-324.

Hiatt, W. R. (2004) Carnitine and peripheral arterial disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1033, 92-98.

Hulsmann, W. C. and Dubelaar, M. L. (1988) Aspects of fatty acid metabolism in vascular endothelial cells. Biochemie. 70, 681-686.

Kanter, M. N. and Williams, M. H. (1995). Antioxidants, carnitine, and choline as putative ergogenic aids. International Journal of Sports Nutrition. 5, S120-S131.

Karlic, H. and Lohminger, A. (2004) Supplementation of L-carnitine in athletes: does it make sense? Nutrition. 20 (7-8), 709-715.

Kidd, P. M. (1998) Phosphatidylserine (PS), A remarkable Brain Cell Nutrient. Decatur, IL: Lucas Meyer, Inc.

Kidd, P. M. (1999) A Review of Nutrients and Botanicals in the Integrative Management of Cognitive Dysfunction. Alternative Medicine Review. 4 (3), 144-161.

Kraemer, W. J. and Volek, J. S. (2000) L-carnitine supplementation for the athlete. Anew perspective. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 44, 88-89.

Kramer, W. J., Volek, J. S., French, D. N., Rubin, M. R., Sharman, M. J., Gomez, A. L., Ratamess, N. A., Newton, R. U., Jemiolo, B., Craig, B. W. and Hakkinen, K. (2003) The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. J Strength Cond Res. 17 (3), 455-462.

Krsmanovic, L. Z., Virmani, M. a., Stojilkovic, S. S. and Catt, K. J. (1994) Stimulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion by acetyl-l-carnitine in hypothakmic neurons and GT1 neuronal cells. Neuroscience Letters. 165, 33-36.

Liu, J., Head, E., Gharib, A. M., Yuan, W., Ingersoll, R. T., Hagen, T. M., Cotman, C. W. and Ames, B. N. (2002) Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha-lipoic acid. Neurobiology. 99 (4), 2356-2361.

Loster, H., Miehe, K., Punzel, M., Stiller, O., Pankau, H. and Schauer, J. (1999) Prolonged oral L-carnitine substitution increases bicycle ergometer performance in patients with severe, ischemically induced cardiac insufficiency. Cardiovascular Drugs Therapy. 13, 537-546.

McDaniel, M. A., Maier, S. F. and Einstein, G. O. (2003) “Brain-specific” nutrients: a memory cure? Nutrition. 11-12, 955-956.

Neumann, G., Pfutzner, A. and Berbalk, A. (2000). Successful Endurance Training. Oxford: Meyer and Meyer Sport (UK), LTD.

Tempesta, E., Troncon, R., Janiri, L., et al., (1990) Role of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of cognitive deficit in chronic alcoholism. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 10, 101-107.


Volek, J. S., Kraemer, W.J., Rubin, M. R., Gomez, A. L., Ratamess, N. A. and Gaynor, P. (2002) L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favouably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. American Journal of Physiology. 282, E474-482.
 
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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di arginina>>

What is Arginine?
Arginine is a non-essential amino acid that is known to have anabolic (muscle building properties. Arginine supplements are normally available as either L-Arginine, Arginine pyroglutamate or Arginine-alpha-ketoglutatrate. Supplementing with arginine has many benefits including increased protein synthesis, reduced muscle breakdown, elevated growth hormone levels, improved recovery, increased muscle blood flow, lactic acid and ammonia removal, reduced body fat levels, and increased nitric oxide production.

Who Should Consider Taking Arginine supplements?
Anyone, who wants increased muscle size, greater recovery. Since the main benefits of arginine supplementation come from increased muscle protein synthesis and enhanced growth hormone levels the people who will primarily benefit are bodybuilders and strength athletes. However, the increased muscle blood flow and lactic acid removal may also be beneficial to endurance athletes.

Summary of Arginine's Phyiological Effects:

Naturally increases growth hormone levels
Enhances Nitric oxide production
Dilates blood vessels

Arginine Research
Supplementation with arginine is known to significantly increase growth hormone levels (Merimee 1965; Isidori et al., 1981; Elam, 1988; Di Luigi, 1999). Growth hormone is one of the most important hormones for bodybuilding as it is known to significantly increase muscle mass as well as decreasing body fat levels. It is well known that the positive effects of any exercise training program are primarily due to the natural release of growth hormone in response to the exercise program (Kraemer 1992). The positive effects that arginine supplementation has on growth hormone levels is one of the reasons why it has such a positive impact on muscle mass.

Arginine is also known to dilate blood vessels, primarily through increased nitric oxide production. This is important since it increases the amount of blood flow to the muscles. The increased blood flow allows greater delivery of hormones, protein, carbohydrate and other nutrients to the muscles and therefore aids muscle growth. Other positive effects of increased muscle blood flow include increased muscular endurance, lower lactic acid and ammonia levels.

Increased nitric oxide production, following arginine supplementation, is of great importance to bodybuilders. As well as having an effect on muscle blood flow, nitric oxide also stimulates muscle growth. Increased nitric oxide levels have a positive effect on muscle mass by stimulating an increase in the rate of protein synthesis within muscle cells.

Is Arginine effective?
Researchers have found that arginine is effective at enhancing both growth hormone levels and nitric oxide production and should therefore be of benefit for enhancing muscle growth.

How to take Arginine?

1) L-arginine &#8211; this is the most basic type of arginine. It has positive effects on growth hormone levels, muscle mass, body fat and nitric oxide. Because it is the most basic (free-form) type of arginine it needs to be taken at a higher doseage (approximately 5g 30minutes before exercise to have a positive effect) than the more advanced types of arginine.

2) Arginine pyroglutamate &#8211; is made by binding L-arginine to pyroglutamic acid. It has the same positive effects as L-arginine but has a greater effect on growth hormone levels as it has a greater ability to cross the blood brain barrier. You should take approximately 3g of arginine pyroglutamate, combined with L-lysine, 30minutes before exercise for best results.

3) Arginine alpha ketoglutarate &#8211; is made by combining L-arginine with alpha ketoglutaric acid. It has the same benefits as L-arginine but has a greater effect on nitric oxide production. You should take approximately 3g of arginine alpha ketoglutarate 30minutes before exercise for best results.

References

Di Luigi, L., Guidetti, L., Pigozzi, F. et al., (1999). Acute amino acid supplementation enhances pituitary responsiveness in athletes. Medicine of Science in Sport and Exercise. 31, 1748-1751.

Elam, R. P. (1988) Morphological changes in adult males from resistance exericise amino acid supplementation. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 28, 35-39.

Isiadori, A., Lo Monaco, A. and Cappa, M. (1981) A study of growth hormone release in man after oral administration of amino acids. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 7, 475-481.

Kraemer, W. J. (1992) Influence of the endocrine system on resistance training adaptations. National Strength and Conditioning Journal. 14, 47-54.

Merimee, T. J., Lillicrap, D. A. Rabinowitz, D. (1965) Effect of arginine on serum-levels of growth hormones. Lancet. 2, 668.
 
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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di BCAA>>

What are BCAAs?
There are three branch chain amino acids (BCAAs), these are: isoleucine, leucine, and valine. BCAA&#8217;s are considered essential, as unlike other amino acids they cannot be manufactured in the human body, and they can only be obtained in our diet. In total there are nine essential amino acids, but, BCAAs account for 35% of all the essential amino acids
found within muscle protein. They are needed for protein building and can be metabolised and used as an energy source during aerobic exercise. BCAAs are present in all protein rich foods, but are found in the greatest amounts in red meat and dairy products. Whey protein contains particularly high levels of BCAAs.

Who Should Consider Taking BCAA supplements?
The main benefits of BCAAs are: A reduction in the amount of muscle breakdown, improved preservation of muscle glycogen stores, improved immune health, and a possible improvement in endurance performance. Therefore anyone who trains intensively, wants to recover more quickly from training, increase lean muscle size, reduce muscle soreness, and improve endurance performance may benefit from BCAAs.

Summary of BCAAs Phyiological Effects:

Stimulates muscle protein synthesis (muscle building)
Decreases muscle protein catabolism (muscle breakdown)
Helps to increase lean muscle mass
Reduces muscle damage and soreness following exercise
Improves immune function
May enhance endurance exercise performance

BCAA Research
In skeletal muscles and the heart, BCAA supplementation alone, has the same benefits of stimulating protein synthesis and reducing muscle breakdown, as is the case when the supply of all amino acids is increased (May and Buse, 1989). BCAAs supplementation has been demonstrated to preserve and even increase muscle size under extreme physical conditions where there would normally be a net loss of muscle tissue (Schena et al., 1992; Bigard et al., 1996). Research looking at the effect of BCAA supplementation during prolonged skiing at altitude, found that the consumption of BCAAs helped to prevent a loss of body mass (Bigard et al., 1996). Research has also demonstrated a positive effect on immune function with BCAAs supplementation (Bassit et al., 2000; Bassit et al., 2002).

During aerobic exercise, or any prolonged exercise session, BCAAs can be oxidized within the mitochondria of skeletal muscles to produce aerobic energy &#8211; the six other essential amino acids are mainly catabolized within the liver (Shimomura et al., 2004). It is well known that during aerobic exercise &#8211; endurance exercise in particular &#8211; the level of BCAAs metabolised to produce energy increases significantly (Rennie, 1996; Kobayashi et al., 1999). Therefore, during any prolonged period of exercise, a significant amount of BCAAs, may be metabolised and may lead to a depletion of BCAAs within muscles.

It should also be noted that Zinc, Magnesium, and Vitamin B6 all have positive effects on mood and may help to alleviate the low feeling sometimes experienced during heavy training.

Research looking at the effect of BCAA supplementation has found that taking 77mg of BCAAs, per kg of bodyweight, before exercise results in a significant reduction in the amount of muscle breakdown (MacLean et al., 1994). So to reduce muscle breakdown during exercise a 70kg athlete would consume around 5g of BCAAs. It has also been demonstrated that the consumption of BCAAs before and after exercise reduces the levels of serum creatine kinase activity &#8211; which indicates reduced levels of muscle breakdown (Coombes and McNaughton, 2000; Nosaka, 2003). BCAA supplementation before and after exercise also appears to increase the recovery rate from exercise, as indicated by a reduction in muscle soreness following exercise (Nosaka, 2003). Therefore, BCAA supplementation, before and after exercise, appears to be beneficial for reducing the level of exercise-induces muscle damage and for increasing muscle protein synthesis (muscle building) and enhancing the recovery process following exercise.

A further benefit, is the positive effects that BCAAs supplementation appears to have on endurance performance. BCAAs compete with the amino acid trytophan for uptake into the brain. During prolonged exercise BCAAs are used for fuel and this leads to a decreased level of BCAAs in the blood. The decreased levels of BCAAs in the blood means there is a greater ratio of tryptophan uptake into the brain. High levels of tryptophan in the brain, are associated with increased feelings of tiredness and fatigue, and hence, reduced exercise performance. Supplementation with BCAAs during exercise keeps the levels of BCAAs elevated in the blood and helps to delay the build up of tryptophan in the brain. Research suggests that supplementing with BCAAs during exercise may have a positive effect on exercise performance by reducing fatigue (Blomstrand et al., 1991).

Are BCAAs effective?
Research has shown that BCAAs are effective for enhancing muscle growth and recovery from exercise. They also improve immune health and may enhance endurance exercise performance.

How to take BCAAs?
The general recommendation for enhancing exercise performance, improving recovery, and increasing lean muscle size, is to consume 3-5grams of BCAAs 30 minutes before exercise, and a further 3-5g within 30minutes of completing exercise. On non-training days the recovery rate may be enhanced, and lean muscle mass maintained, by consuming 3-5g of BCAAs, 1-2 times during the day &#8211; consider taking one serving first thing in the morning and one last thing at night. There are no reports of any side effects associated with BCAA consumption (Shimomura et al., 2004).

References

Bassit, R. A., Sawada, L. A., Bacurau, R. F. P., Navarro, F. and Costa Rosa, L. F. B. P. (2000) The effect of BCAA supplementation upon the immune system of triathletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 32, 1214-1219.

Bassit, R. A., Sawada, L. A., Bacurau, R. F., Navarro, F., Martins, E. Jr, Santos, R. V., Caperuto, E. C., Rogeri, P. and Costa Rosa, L. F. (2002) Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and the immune response of long-distance athletes. Nutrition. 18 (5), 376-379.

Bigard, A. X., Lavier, P., Ulmann, L., Legrand, H., Douce, P. and Guezennec, C. Y. (1996) Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during repeated prolonged skiing exercises at altitude. Int J Sport Nutr. 6 (3), 295-306.

Blomstrand, E., Hassmen, P. and Ekblom, B. (1991) Administration of branched-chain amino acids during sustained exercise-effects on performance and on plasma concentration of some amino acids. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 63, 83-88.

Coombes, J. S. and McNaughton, L. R. (2000) Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase after prolonged exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 40, 240-246.

Kobayashi, r. shimomura, Y., Murakami, T., Nakai, N., Otsuka, M., Arakawa, N., Shimizu, K. and Harris, R. A. (1999) Hepatic branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in female rats: activation by exercise and starvation. J Nutr Sci. Vitaminol. 45, 303-309.

May, M. E. and Buse, M. G. (1989) Effects of branched chain amino acids on protein turnover. Diab Metab Rev. 5 (3), 227-245.

MacLean, D. A., Graham, T. E. and Saltin, B. (1994) Branched-chain amino acids augment ammonia metabolism while attenuating protein breakdown during exercise. Am J Physiol. 267, E1010-E1022.

Nosaka, K. (2003) Muscle soreness and amino acids. Training J. 289, 24-28.

Rennie, M. J. (1996) Influence of exercise on protein and amino acid metabolism. In: Handbook of Physiology, Sect 12: Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems (Rowell, L. B. & Shepherd, J. T., eds), Chapter 22. 995-1035. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, MD.

Schena, F., Guerrini, F. and Tregnaghi, P. (1992) Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during trekking at altitude. The effects on loss of body mass, body composition, and muscle power. European Journal of Applied physiology. 65, 394-398.

Shimomura, Y., Murakami, T., Nakai, N., Nagasaki, M. and Harris, R. A. (2004) Exercise Promotes BCAA Catabolism: Effects of BCAA Supplementation on Skeletal Muscle during Exercise. J Nutr. 134, 1583S-1587S.
 
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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di condroitina/glucosamina>>

What is Chondroitin Sulfate?
Chondroitin is an important structural component of cartilage. It is an essential component of connective tissue and helps to provide elasticity and other functions. Like Glucosamine, Chondroitin sulfate plays a major role in the formation of cartilage. Chondroitin is regularly used by athletes – normally in conjunction with glucosamine – to reduce the cause of pain associated with injury, to speed the recovery rate from injury, and to reduce the risk of getting injured.

Who Should Consider Taking Chondroitin Sulfate supplements?
Anyone, who trains regularly, in either high impact repetitive sports (like running, rugby, football etc.), trains with heavy weights, and wants to reduce the risk of getting injured or speed the rate of recovery from an existing injury will benefit from chondroitin.

Summary of Chondroitin Sulfate's Phyiological Effects:

Increases water storage within cartilage
Protects joints from damage caused by impact injuries
Provides building blocks for repair and growth of new cartilage
Slows down the breakdown of cartilage
Reduces the pain associated with joint injuries
Promotes the growth of new cartilage

Chondroitin Sulfate Research
Chondroitin works in three ways to protect and improve the functioning of cartilage: 1) It has a very strong affinity with water and will draw in additional water into the cartilage. The extra water within the cartilage improves the protective capacity of the cartilage by making it more resistant to the pressure placed on joints during impact; 2) It provides building blocks for repair and maintenance of cartilage (Tiraloche et al., 2005), and; 3) Chondroitin inhibits certain enzymes that would otherwise lead to the breakdown of cartilage tissue (Michel et al., 2005).

Chondroitin supplementation has been demonstrated to reduce the amount of pain associated with injury as well as to slow the progression of cartilage loss (Ubelhart et al., 1998; Deal and Moskowiwitz, 1999). Chondroitin doesn’t even have to be taken on a regular basis to have a positive effect (Uebelhart et al., 2004). In this research, consuming chondroitin twice a day (800mg per day) for 2, 3 month periods, during a year, reduced cartilage loss and symptoms of pain at the end of the year. This supports the idea that chondroitin has a prolonged effect even after you stop taking it.

Increased nitric oxide production, following arginine supplementation, is of great importance to bodybuilders. As well as having an effect on muscle blood flow, nitric oxide also stimulates muscle growth. Increased nitric oxide levels have a positive effect on muscle mass by stimulating an increase in the rate of protein synthesis within muscle cells.


Is Chondroitin Sulfate effective?
Chondroitin is highly effective at reducing the pain associated with arthritis and and joint injuries as well as reducing the progression of cartilage loss. It can also stimulate the growth of new cartilage.

How to take Chondroitin Sulfate?
To reduce the risk of injury you should aim to take approximately 400mg per day. To increase the rate of recovery from injury aim for about 800mg per day. For treatment of osteoarthritus the recommended dose is 800mg per day (Simanek et al., 2005). Consider taking chondroitin for two months, followed by a two month gap. Research suggests that chondroitin is more effective when combined with glucosamine (Leffler et al., 2003).

References

Deal, C. L. and Moskowitz, R. W. (1999) Neutraceuticals as therapeutic agents in osteoarthritis, chondroitin sulfate, and collagen hydrolysate. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America. 25, 379-395.

Leffler, C. T., Philippi, A. F., Leffler, S. G., Mosure, J. C. and Kim, P. D. (1999) Glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Mil Med. 164 (2), 85-91.

Michel, B. A., Stucki, G., Frey, D., De Vathaire, F., Vignon, E., Bruehlmann, P., Ubelhart, D. (2005) Chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomised, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 52, 779-786.

Simanek, V., Kren, V., Ulrichova, J. and Gallo, J. (2005) The efficiacy of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis: are these saccharides drugs or nutraceuticals? Biomed. Papers. 149 (1), 51-56.

Tiraloche, G., Girard, C., Chouinard, L., Sampalis, J., Moquin, L., Ionescu, M., Reiner, A., Poole, A. R. and Laverty, S. (2005) Effect of oral glucosamine on cartilage degradation in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 52, 1118-1128.

Ubelhart, D., Malaise, M., Marcolongo, R., DeVathaire, F. Piperno, M., Mailleux, E., Fioravanti, A., Matoso, L. and Vignon, E. (2004) Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomised, double-blind, multicentre study versus placebo. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 269-276.

Ubelhart, D., Thonar, E. J., Delmas, P. D., Chantraine, A. and Vignon, E. (1998) Effects of oral chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study. Osteoarthritus and Cartilage. 6, S39-S46.
 
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What is Citrulline Malate?
Citrulline Malate is a combination of the amino acid Citruline, which is involved in the urea cycle and Malate, a tricarboxycylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediate – the TCA cycle is a major producer of aerobic energy within the mitochondria. Citrulline Malate has many positive effects on aerobic exercise performance including: 1) increased aerobic production of energy; 2) Improved stamina and fatigue resistance, and; 3) improved recovery and energy levels.

Who Should Consider Taking Citrulline Malate?
Anyone who is involved in aerobic exercise and who wants to enhance performance and recovery (runners, swimmers, cyclists, footballers etc.) may benefit from citrulline malate supplementation. Since, citrulline malate enhances the recovery process it may be useful for the recovery process of power athletes.

Summary of Citrulline Malate's Phyiological Effects:

Increases the amount of energy produced aerobically
Increases the rate of recovery of the important phospho-creatine energy pathway
Enhances fatigue resistance and recovery from physical exercise
Protects against increased blood acidity by increasing the levels of bicarbonate in the blood
Improves the rate of ammonia clearance and prevents it's accumulation during exercise
Increases the levels of both arginine and ornithine

Citrulline Malate Research Citrulline is naturally produce in small quantities from the amino acid L-glutamine, and can be converted by our body to arginine. Supplementation with citrulline malate has been demonstrated to increase levels of arginine and ornithine (Callis et al., 1991) which are both important amino acids for muscle growth and have been shown to influence growth hormone levels. Arginine has many important roles within the body such as the production of nitric oxide which is important for increasing blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscles, and also increasing the rate of muscle growth.

Malate is believed to enhance the level of ATP (energy molecules) production through aerobic metabolism (Bendahan et al., 2002).

Citrulline malate has been used clinically to improve recovery from physical activity in patients with acute diseases (Creff, 1989). Research has demonstrated that citrulline malate has a protective effect against increased blood acidity and protects against ammonia poisoning (Callis et al., 1991). Supplementation with citrulline malate increases the rate of ammonia clearance without affecting ammonia accumulation during bicycle exercise (Vanuxem et al., 1990). This is because citrulline is involved in the urea cycle and therefore plays a role in the detoxification of ammonia.

Supplementation with citrulline malate has been shown to increase levels of bicarbonate (an acid buffer that soaks up lactic acid molecules) (Callis et al., 1991). This may allow you to exercise at a higher level before the negative effects of increased acidity affect exercise performance.

The research by Benedahan et al., 2002, demonstrated the great potential of citrulline malate supplementation to enhance aerobic performance. The most important finding of their research was that there was significantly more energy produced aerobically (34% increase). But they also found a significant reduction in the sensations of fatigue and found that rate of recovery, as measured by the rate of phospho-creatine recovery, improved by 20%. The researchers concluded that the increased aerobic ATP production together with a reduced proportion of anaerobic energy supply may contribute to the lower levels of fatigue experienced by the subjects.

Therefore, citrulline malate may be useful for all athletes for maintaining energy levels, improving recovery, enhancing exercise performance and fatigue resistance.


Is Citrulline Malate effective?
Researchers have demonstrated that Citrulline Malate enhances aerobic energy production, improves recovery from exercises, increases fatigue resistance, and helps to prevent the build up of lactic acid.

How to take Citrulline Malate?
For best results consume around 3000mg of citruline malate on an empty stomach in the morning. On training days you may want to take another 3000mg 30-40mins before a workout.

References

Bendahan, D., Mattei, J. P., Ghattas, B., Confort-Gouny, S., Le Guern, M. E. and Cozzone, P. J. (2002) Citrulline/malate promotes aerobic energy production in human exercising muscle. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 36 (4), 282-289.

Callis, A., Magnan de Bornier, B., Serrano, J. J., Bellet, H. and Saumade, R. (1991) Activity of citruline malate on acid-base balance and blood ammonia and amino acid levels. Study in the animal and in man. Arzneimittelforschung. 41 (6), 660-663.

Creff, A. F. (1982) Controlled double-blind clinical-study against stimol placebo in the treatment of asthenia. Gazette Medicale De France. 89, 1926-1929.

Vanuxem, D., Duflot, J. C., Prevot, H., et al., (1990) Influence of an anti-asthenia agent, citrulline malate, on serum lactate and ammonia kinetics during a maximum exercise test in sedentary subjects. Seminaire des Hopitaux de Paris. 66, 477-481.
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di CLA>>

What is CLA?
Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is a type of fatty acid that is found naturally in our diet. It is present in relatively high levels in unprocessed sun flower oil and is also found in milk and other dairy products. CLA has many positive effects including a reduction in body fat, preservation of muscle mass, reduced rates of artherosclerosis (furring of arteries), more stable blood sugar levels.

Who Should Consider Taking CLA supplements?
Anyone looking to decrease body fat levels, increase muscle size, and increase the rate of recovery may benefit from CLA. Therefore CLA will be beneficial for weight loss, strength athletes, or anyone involved in strenuous exercise.

Summary of CLA's Phyiological Effects:

Reduces fat storage
Increases the rate of fat metabolism
Preserves and increases lean muscle mass
Increases muscular strength
Decreases the levels of the "bad" LDL cholesterol
Decreases appetite
Lowers cortisol levels

CLA Research
CLA appears to aid fat loss by three main mechanisms: 1) CLA reduces that amount of dietary fat that is stored as fat in our bodies. It does this by inhibiting key enzymes that would otherwise cause dietary fat to be stored in our fat cells; 2) CLA increases the rate at which fat is metabolised, and; 3) CLA leads to increases in lean muscle mass which in turn speeds up the metabolism and therefore an increased metabolism of fat.

Research has demonstrated that when CLA is taken at a dose of 3-6g per day, it increase the rate of fat loss as well as increasing lean mass (Blankson et al., 2000). The consumption of 3.4g of CLA, per day, led to reductions in body fat mass, decreased levels of the bad LDL cholesterol, and maintained levels of the good HDL cholesterol (Gaullier et al., 2005). Therefore, not only does CLA help to reduce body fat but it may also help to reduce the risk of artherosclerosis (furring of arteries). The researchers concluded that the consumption of CLA decreases body fat mass in overweight humans, and may help to maintain initial reductions in body fat mass and weight in the long term. They also found that the consumption of CLA for 24 months caused no serious adverse effects.

Another, positive of CLA supplementation is that it appears to increase feelings of fullness, whilst decreasing feelings of hunger (Kamphius et al., 2003). Therefore, it may also aid weight loss by having an appetite suppressing effect.

As well as increasing fat loss and lean body mass, CLA has also been shown to lead to significant increases in strength (Lowery et al., 1998). The gains in lean muscle mass and strength are likely to be due to CLA’s ability to lower the level of cortisol in the blood. Since cortisol has a negative effect on muscle mass, by increasing the breakdown of muscle tissue, lowering cortisol levels will lead to reduced muscle breakdown and will increase the rate of recovery after exercise.

Is CLA effective?
CLA has been demonstrated to enhance fat loss whilst maintaining or increasing lean muscle mass. It has been shown to enhance muscle gains, strength gains, whilst lowering cortisol levels.

How to take CLA?
In order to reduce body fat levels and increase lean muscle mass you should aim to consume 3-6g of CLA per day. This should be split into three doses of 1-2g taken with food.

References

Blankson, H., Stakkestad, J. A., Fagertun, H., Thom, E., Wadstein, J. and Gudmundsen, O. (2000). Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. Journal of Nutrition. 130, 2943-2948.

Gaullier, J. M., Halse, J., Hoye, K., Kristiansen, K., Fagertun, H., Vik, H. and Gudmunsen, O. (2005) Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid for 24 months is well tolerated by and reduces body fat mass in healthy, overweight humans. J Nutr. 135 (4), 778-784.

Kamphuis, M. M., Lejune, M. P., Saris, W. H. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. (2003) Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on appetite and food intake in overweight subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 57 (10), 1268-1274.

Lowery, L. M., Apicelli, P. A. and Lemon, P. W. R. (1998) Conjugated linoleic acid enhances muscle muscle size and strength gains in novice bodybuilders. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 30, S182.
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di glucosamina/condroitina>>

What is Glucosamine?
Glucosamine is an important building block, found in high concentrations in joints, needed for the manufacture of cartilage and also plays a role in the formation of collagen. Cartilage is the spongy material, that acts as a cushion to our joint when we make any physical movement. Collagen is the main structural component in tendons, ligaments, and cartilage, and is found in large quantities in our skin. Glucosamine is usually sold as either glucosamine sulfate or glucosamine hydrochloride (HCL). The raw material is derived from chitin, a biopolymer that is present in the exoskeletons of marine invertebrates.

Glucosamine is regularly used by athletes – normally in conjunction with chondroitin – to reduce the cause of pain associated with injury, to speed the recovery rate from injury, and to reduce the risk of getting injured.

Who Should Consider Taking Glucosamine supplements?
Anyone, who trains regularly, in either high impact repetitive sports (like running, rugby, football etc.), trains with heavy weights, and wants to reduce the risk of getting injured or to speed the rate of recovery from an existing injury. Glucosamine has proved to be very popular amongst athletes as a treatment for injuries and as a prevention of further injuries.

Summary of Glucosamine's Phyiological Effects:

Reduces the severity of joint pain
Improves the rate of recovery from injury
Helps to rebuild damaged cartilage and grow new cartilage
The positive effects of glucosamine can be felt even after discontinuation of treatment
Research suggests it may help to prevent the build up of fatty deposits on artery walls

Glucosamine Research
Glucosamine has proved to be effective at improving the rate of recovery from injury and in reducing the amount and severity of joint pain (Deal and Moskowitz, 1999). One of the major benefits of glucosamine, compared with nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), is that they can reduce the symptoms without the side-effects. Perhaps, of more importance, is the way that Glucosamine doesn’t just treat the symptoms of pain it actually helps to rebuild damaged cartilage (Houpt et al., 1999). Glucosamine, works by actually building more cartilage (Tiraloche et al., 2005).

Glucosamine, like chondroitin, is known as a symptomatic slow-acting drug for osteoarthritis (SYSADOA). This means that there is a delay of 2+ weeks before there is a noticeable improvement (Simanek et al., 2005). However, because glucosamine works by building new cartilage, even if you stop taking glucosamine it will be several weeks before your symptoms will worsen again.

Glucosamine should be of interest to all athletes, but especially endurance runners, who cause damage to their cartilage through the repetitive pounding motion of running. The good news is that glucosamine 2KCL appears to be highly effective at treating injuries and if taken on a regular basis will help to reverse some of the damage already done to joints.

One interesting piece of research, with glucosamine, found that glucosamine may actually significantly reduce atherosclerosis – the furring, or hardening, of arteries – and therefore may actually help to protect against vascular diseases (Duan et al., 2005).

Is Glucosamine effective?
Is Glucosamine effective? Research has shown that glucosamine significantly reduces the level of joint pain and speeds up the heeling process. It speeds up recovery, and reduces the risk of injury, by actually re-growing new cartilage.

How to take Glucosamine?
If you are looking to try to prevent injury they can take 400-800mg of glucosamine per day. For improved speed of recovery, aim to take 1200-1600mg of glucosamine per day. Research suggests that glucosamine is more effective when combined with chondroitin (Leffler et al., 2003).

References

Deal, C. L. and Moskowitz, R. W. (1999) Neutraceuticals as therapeutic agents in osteoarthritis, chondroitin sulfate, and collagen hydrolysate. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America. 25, 379-395.

Duan, W., Paka, L. and Pillarisetti, S. (2005) Distinct effects of glucose and glucosamine on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells: Evidence for a protective role for glucosamine in atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular Diabetology. 4: 16.

Houpt, J. B., McMillan, R., Wein, C. and Paget-Dellio, S. D. (1999) Effect of glucosamine hydrochloride in the treatment of pain of osteoarthritis of the knee. Journal of Rheumatology. 26, 2423-2430.

Leffler, C. T., Philippi, A. F., Leffler, S. G., Mosure, J. C. and Kim, P. D. (1999) Glucosamine, chondroitin, and manganese ascorbate for degenerative joint disease of the knee or low back: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Mil Med. 164 (2), 85-91.

Simanek, V., Kren, V., Ulrichova, J. and Gallo, J. (2005) The efficiacy of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis: are these saccharides drugs or nutraceuticals? Biomed Papers. 149 (1), 51-56.

Tiraloche, G., Girard, C., Chouinard, L., Sampalis, J., Moquin, L., Ionescu, M., Reiner, A., Poole, A. R. and Laverty, S. (2005) Effect of oral glucosamine on cartilage degradation in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 52, 1118-1128.
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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di glutamina>>

What is Glutamine?
L-Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body making up over 50% of the total amount of amino acids. It is essential for growth and is known to play an important role in liver function, serves as an important fuel for many tissues in the body (particularly the muscles, immune cells, and the gastrointestinal tract, and plays a role in the regulation of protein synthesis (Rennie et al., 1989). In fact glutamine is regularly used by doctors and health professionals to treat illness, injury and infection (smith, 1990).

Who Should Consider Taking L-Glutamine supplements?
Anyone who trains intensively, or for prolonged periods of time may benefit from glutamine supplements. Strength/power athletes and endurance athletes like runners and footballers should all benefit from glutamine supplements.

Summary of Glutamine's Phyiological Effects:

Improved immune function and reduced risk of infection
Increased levels of growth hormone
Helps to maintain the amino acid balance
Enhanced protein synthesis
Improves the rate of recovery

L-Glutamine Research
All though our bodies are able to produce glutamine from other amino acids in our diet, stores of glutamine are quickly depleted during times of stress or intense physical activity. During periods of intense stress, such as, prolonged or intense exercise, starvation, or trauma, the level of plasma glutamine may decrease substantially (Castell, 2003). Intense exercise or any period of prolonged stress can deplete glutamine levels. Regular exercise has been shown to deplete glutamine levels by 45% in just 7 days (Newsholme, 1994). Following Marathon running plasma glutamine levels have been shown to decrease by around 20% (Castell and Newsholme, 1997). Since glutamine is an important fuel for immune cells, when glutamine levels are low, there is an increased risk of infection.

The consumption of oral glutamine has been shown to have a beneficial effect on immune function, and reduces the risk of infection following prolonged endurance exercise (Castell and Newsholme, 1997; Castell, 2003) and should be of benefit to athletes engaged in heavy exercise training (Antonio and Street, 1999).

Most important to the athlete is glutamine's ability to increase the production of protein (muscle building) and decrease protein degradation (muscle breakdown). Glutamine helps to maintain the amino-acid balance in the body, thereby enabling a greater synthesis of protein and a possible decrease in symptoms of overtraining (Bompa et al., 2003). Glutamine stimulates the synthesis of new protein within muscle cells, this in turn will lead to an increase in the size and strength of the muscles. This increase in strength is partly due to glutamines muscle cell volumising effect, whereby there is increased retention of water within muscle cells.

Because glutamine can be used as an energy source, maintaining a high level of glutamine in muscle tissue may help to preserve the valuable stores of muscle glycogen (carbohydrate store within muscle tissue). It will also help to increase the rate of glycogen re-synthesis in muscle cells, following strenuous or prolonged exercise.

Glutamine supplementation may efficiently lead to the release of growth hormone (Bompa et al., 2003). In fact, it is known that just a 2 gram dose of L-glutamine, taken orally, can double the level of growth hormone in just 30 minutes (Welbourne, 1995). When glutamine levels rise in the blood, it is detected by the brain. The brain associates this rise in glutamine levels with an increase in acidity in the blood and releases growth hormone in order to regulate the acidity levels.

In short, glutamine supplementation aids recovery from prolonged or intense exercise, primarily, by reducing the rate of muscle breakdown within muscle tissue. It also aids immune function, spares valuable stores of glycogen, and increases levels of growth hormone.

Is Glutamine effective?
Glutamine appears to be effective at preventing amino acid depletion and enhances post exercise immune function.

How to take L-Glutamine? Health professionals generally recommend a daily dosage of 5-10 grams of glutamine, split into 2-4 servings. Athletes would be wise to use a minimum dose of 2 grams in order to gain the benefit of increased growth hormone levels. Ideally this should be taken 30 minutes prior to exercise and again immediately after exercise.

References

Antonio, J. and Street, C. (1999) Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes. Can J Appl Physiol. 24 (1), 1-14.

Bompa, T. O., Pasquale, M. D. and Cornacchia, L. J. (2003) Chapter 6: Using Nutritional Supplements. In: Serious Strength Training. Human Kinetics. Leeds, United kingdom.

Castell, L. (2003) Glutamine supplementation in vitro and in vivo, in exercise and in immunodepression. Sports Medicine. 33 (5), 323-345.

Castell, L. M. and Newsholme, E. A. (1997) The effects of oral glutamine on athletes after prolonged, exhaustive exercise. Nutrition. 13 (7-8), 738-742.

Newsholme, E. A. (1994) Biomechanical mechanisms to explain immunosuppression in well-trained and overtrained athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 15, S142-147.

Rennie, M. J., MacLennan, P. A., Hundall, H. S. et al., (1989) Skeletal muscle glutamine transport, intramuscular glutamine concentration, and muscle-protein turnover. Metabolism. 38 (8 Suppl 1), 47-51.

Smith, R. J. (1990) Glutamine metabolism and its physiologic importance. Journal of Parenatal and Eternal Nutrition. 14, 40S-44S.

Welbourne, T. C. (1995) Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 61, 1058-1061.
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di HMB>>

What is HMB?
HMB (Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate) is a metabolite, derived from the amino acid leucine, and its keto acid, alpha-ketoisocaporate. Only about 5% of the leucine in our diet is converted to HMB (Gatnau, et al., 1995). HMB appears to have anti-catabolic properties. This means that it slows down the rate at which muscle tissue is broken down in our own body. This is supported by research that suggests HMB reduces the amount of exercise induced muscle damage (Knitter et al., 2000).

Who Should Consider Taking HMB supplements?
Anyone training intensively in strength, power or endurance based sports will benefit from HMB supplementation. HMB may also aid weight loss.

Summary of HMB's Phyiological Effects:

Significantly reduces the amount of muscle damage following exercise
Leads to increased muscle mass
Reduces the amount of muscle breakdown
Increased muscle cell recovery after exercise
May enhance aerobic performance
Improved recovery rate
Positive effect on the young and elderly alike

HMB Research
Research by Knitter et al., 2000, found that following 6-weeks of HMB supplementation, runners experienced 58% less muscle cell damage than athletes that were not taking HMB, following a 20-km run. Muscle damage was found to still be 9% lower in the HMB group four days after the 20-km run.

Early research on HMB by Nissen et al., 1996a, found that HMB supplementation can increase muscle mass by 1.2kg over a three week period when taken as a daily 3-gram supplement and combined with resistance training. Further research by Nissen et al., 1996b, found that HMB supplementation led to increased muscle mass - three times greater than the placebo group - and muscle strength - two times greater than the placebo group. In this study, 1.5-3g of HMB, reduced the amount of exercise proteolysis (muscle breakdown) and or muscle damage and resulted in larger gains in muscle function associated with resistance training.

In a review of current HMB research by Alon et al., 2002, concluded that HMB supplementation plays an important role in reducing protein breakdown and/or increasing the recovery of damaged muscle cells. They concluded that HMB supplementation “could be advantageous to all individuals participating in exercise programs and improve the lives of many”. Interestingly, HMB supplementation has been shown to be equally effective when used by elderly individuals with up to 20% increases in protein synthesis (muscle building process), increases in fat-free mass, decreased percentage body fat, and increased strength (Vukovich et al., 2001; Flakoll et al., 2004).

Further research (Vukovich and Adams, 1997) looked at the effect of HMB supplementation on endurance cycling performance. In this Research study HMB supplementation led to significant increases in the time taken to reach VO2max and the lactate threshold. Therefore, as well as improving muscular strength, HMB also has the potential to improve endurance performance.

HMB supplementation appears to be less effective when used by highly trained athletes, than by less well trained athletes (Kreider et al., 1999; Slater et al., 2001).

Is HMB effective?
HMB appears to be effective at reducing muscle breakdown, increasing muscle mass, and increasing recovery from exercise.

How to take HMB?
Research has generally found HMB to be effective when taken at a dose of approximately 2-4g per day. The dose is dependant on the size of the athlete: heavy athletes may need a dose of 3-4g per5 day, whereas lighter athletes may only need 2g per day. The dose should be split up throughout the day, with meals, as the body is unable to utilise large doses of HMB at one time, and any excess will be excreted and therefore wasted. Endurance athletes may find HMB to be particularly effective at reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and speeding up the rate of recovery between sessions.

References

Alon, T., Bagchi, D. and Preuss, H. G. (2002) Supplementing with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) to build and maintain muscle mass: a review. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 111 (1-4), 139-151.

Flakoll, P., Sharp, R., Baier, S., Levenhagen, D., Carr, C. and Nissen, S. (2004) Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, arginine, and lysine supplementation on strength, functionality, body composition, and protein metabolism in elderly women. Nutrition. 20 (5), 445-451.

Gatnau, R., Zimmerman, D. R., Nissen, S. L., Wannemuehler, M. and Ewan, R. C. (1995) Effects of excess dietary leucine catabolites on growth and immune responses in pigs. Journal of Animal Sciences. 73, 159-165.

Knitter, A. E., Panton, L., Rathmacher, J. A., Petersen, A. and Sharp, R. (2000) Effects of b-hydroxy-b-methylbutyrate on muscle damage after a prolonged run. Journal of Applied Physiology. 89, 1340-1344.

Kreider, R. B., Ferreira, M., Wilson, M. and Almada, A. L. (1999) Effects of calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during resistance-training on markers of catabolism, body composition and strength. Int J Sports Med. 20 (8), 503-509.

Nissen, S. et al., (1996a). Effect of HMB supplementation on strength and body composition of trained and untrained males undergoing intense resistance training. FASEB J, 10 (3), A287.

Nissen, S., sharp, R., Ray, M., Rathmacher, J. A., Rice, D., Fuller, J. C. Connelly, A. S. and Abdumrad, N. (1996b) Effect of leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology. 81, 2095-2104.

Slater, G., Jenkins, D., Logan, P., Lee, H., Vukovich, M., Rathmacher, J. A. and Hahn, A. G. (2001) Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not affect changes in strength or body composition during resistance training in trained men. Int J Sport nutr Exerc Metab. 11 (3), 384-396.

Vukovich, M. D. and Adams, G. D. (1997) Effect of HMB on VO2peak and maximal lactate in endurance-trained cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 29, 5, S252, 1432.

Vukovich, M. D., stubbs, N. B. and Bolhein, R. N. (2001) Body composition in 70-year-old adults responds to dietary beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate similar to that of young adults. J Nutr. 131 (7), 2049-2052.
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di ribosio>>

What is Ribose?
Ribose is a naturally occurring pentose sugar – a pentose sugar is a sugar made up of 5 carbon atoms, rather than the usual 6 carbon atoms found in glucose, fructose, sucrose etc. In animal studies supplementation with ribose has been demonstrated to enhance the recovery rate by increasing re-synthesis of ATP. Following intense or prolonged exercise the amount of ATP (energy molecules) within your muscles, may decrease by around 20-25%, and may take 48-72hours to fully return to normal hours. The idea between ribose supplementation is that it has the potential to speed up the recovery rate.

Who Should Consider Taking Ribose supplements? Ribose supplementation may be of benefit to athletes looking to enhance their recovery rate and sprint performance.

Summary of Ribose's Phyiological Effects:

May aid the re-synthesis of ATP following strenuos exercise
No evidence to support enhanced exercise performance

Ribose Research
Ribose plays an important role in the re-synthesis of ATP. Following supplementation, it is rapidly absorbed and is well tolerated at high doses (Gross et al., 1989). Ribose can then be metabolized through the pentose phosphate pathway to form glucose, or transported to muscle cells, where it can enhance ATP re-synthesis. Animal studies have demonstrated that when ribose is administered intravenously the rate of ATP synthesis increases (Zimmer, 1989; Zarzeczny et al., 2000; Zarzeczny et al., 2001).

Some researchers have seen positive results with ribose supplementation. For instance one study found that ribose had a positive effect on the final sprint of a sprint session (Raue et al., 2001) and another found that ribose supplementation helped to protect against a drop in the level of the adenine nucleotide pool (an indicator of ATP re-synthesis) (Gallagher et al., 2001). Hellsten et al., (2004) looked at the effect of ribose consumption (200mg per kg bodyweight) on the rate of adenine nucleotide re-synthesis. They found that following 15x10 sec sprints ATP levels returned to normal after 72 hours in the supplement group but were still lower in the placebo group. However, most research looking at the effect of oral ribose supplementation on human performance has failed to match these results.

At present, there is little evidence that the oral supplementation of ribose will enhance ATP re-synthesis or exercise performance in humans (Eijinde et al., 2001). Most human performance research looking at oral ribose supplementation has produced contradictory results. Research looking at the effect of ribose supplementation on cycle sprint exercise found that sprint performance increased in some subjects but there were not consistent increases in all of the 6 sprints (Bernardi and Ziegenfuss, 2003). In fact, sprint performance only significantly increased in one of the six sprints. They concluded that ribose supplementation did not have a consistent or substantial effect on anaerobic cycle sprinting.

Research by Kreider et al., (2003), looked at the effect of 10g of ribose (per day for 5 day) on cycle sprint performance. Supplementation with ribose had no positive effect on peak power, average power, fatigue, or lactate. However, the ribose group appeared to be able to maintain the same work rate in the second sprint, whereas there was a decrease in the work rate in the placebo group. The researchers concluded that oral ribose supplementation did not affect anaerobic exercise capacity in trained subjects.

Research looking at the effect of ribose supplementation on repeated maximal exercise (Eijinde et al., 2001), found that 16g of ribose was unable to enhance ATP re-synthesis immediately after, or 24 hours after exercise. They found that the consumption of 4 x 4g of ribose resulted in blood ribose levels that were too low to have an ergogenic effect. Interestingly, the ribose levels used in this study were higher than is normally recommended by nutritional manufacturers, and therefore the levels used by manufacturers are unlikely to have positive effects. They concluded that at these levels ribose does not have a beneficial impact on muscle ATP recovery and muscle force and power output, during repeated days of maximal intermittent exercise training.

In animal studies the level of plasma ribose required to elicit a positive effect is relatively high, at around 4-5mmol/l (Zarzeczny et al., 2000; Zarzeczny et al., 2001). However in humans it is not possible to achieve this level through oral consumption of ribose. Eijinde et al., (2001) found that the consumption of 4 x 4g of ribose only resulted in a plasma ribose level of <0.1mmol/l. They stated that this was conceivably too low to significantly enhance muscle ribose uptake to stimulate purine nucleotide synthesis (the process in which ATP is re-synthesized).

Is Ribose effective?
May enhance ATP re-syntesis following exercise but no evidence of enhanced sporting performance.

How to take Ribose?
At present research is not conclusive about the effects of ribose supplementation on human performance. To date research does not support the use of ribose as an effective performance enhancer. Research shows that the consumption of 16g of ribose, per day, is likely to be ineffective. Therefore the levels in most commercial formula are unlikely to be sufficient to elicit a positive effect.

References

Bernardi, J. M. and Ziegenfuss, T. N. (2003) Effects of ribose supplementation on repeated sprint performance in men. J Strength Cond Res. 17 (1), 47-52.

Eijinde, O. B., Leemputte, V. M., Brouns, F., Van Der Vuse, G. J., Labarque, V., Ramaekers, M., Van Schuylenberg, R., Verbessen, P., Wijnen, H. and Hespel, P. (2001) No effects of oral ribose supplementation on repeated maximal exercise and de novo ATP resynthesis. J Appl Physiol. 91, 2275-2281.

Gallagher, P. M., Williamson, D. L., Godard, M. P., Witter, J. R. and Trappe, S. W. (2001) Effects of ribose supplementation on adenine nucleotide concentration in skeletal muscle following high-intensity exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 33, S167.

Gross, M., Reiter, S. and Zollner, N. (1989) Metabolism of D-ribose administered continuously to healthy persons and to patients with myoadenylate deaminase deficiency. Klin Wochenschur. 67, 1205-1213.

Hellsten, Y., Skadhauge, L. and Bangsbo, J. (2004) Effect of ribose supplementation on resynthesis of adenine nucleotides after intense intermittent training in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 286 (1), R182-R188.

Kreider, R. B., Melton, C., Greenwood, M., Rasmussen, C., Lundberg, J. and Almada, A. (2003) Effects of oral D-ribose supplementation on anerobic capacity and selected metabolic markers in healthy males. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 13 (1), 76-86.

Raue, U., Gallagher, P. M., Williamson, D. L., Godard, M. P. and Trappe, S. W. (2001) Effects of ribose supplementation on performance during repeated high-intensity cycle sprints. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 33, S44.

Zarzeczny, R., Brault, J., Abraham, K., Hancock, C. and Terjung, R. L. (2000) Purine salvage is not reduced during recovery following intense contractions. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 32 (Abstract), S273.

Zarzeczny, R., Brault, J. J., Abraham, K. A., Hancock, C. R., Terjung, R. L. (2001) Influence of ribose on adenine salvage after intense muscle contractions. J Appl Physiol. 91 (4), 1775-1781.

Zimmer, H-G., Martins, P. A. and Marshner, G. (1989) Myocardial infarction in rats: effects of maetabolic and pharmacological interventions. Basic Res Cardiol. 84, 332-343.
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di whey protein>>

What is Whey Protein?
Whey protein is a derivative of milk. Milk consists of two types of protein: 1) Whey, and 2) Casein. Both casein and whey protein have traditionally been used by body builders, and strength athletes alike, to increase the rate of protein synthesis (muscle building), decrease the rate of catabolism of muscle mass (muscle breakdown), and consequently to improve the rate of recovery following exercise.

Who Should Consider Taking Whey Protein?
Any athlete looking to increase their lean muscle size, improve their rate of recovery, and improve immune health, and reduce body fat levels may benefit from whey protein.

Summary of Whey Proteins Phyiological Effects:

Increases levels of muscular growth and recovery
Reduction in cortisol levels
Increases strength gains

Protein Research
Of the two types of protein (whey and casein), whey protein has been demonstrated to have the greater benefit on muscle growth and recovery after exercise and helps to lower body fat levels (Lands et al., 1999). The increased levels of muscle growth are likely to be as a result of an increased rate of protein synthesis and due to a reduction in the levels of cortisol (Markus et al., 2000). Cortisol is a stress hormone, released during periods of physical or mental stress. It is known to have a negative effect on muscle growth by increasing the rate of catabolism (muscle breakdown). This is of particular concern to bodybuilding/strength athletes since it will limit the effectiveness of training programmes by lowering potential gains in muscle.

There are two main types of whey protein: 1) whey concentrate, and; 2) whey isolate. Whey concentrate is just the basic form of whey after it has been separated from casein. Whey isolate normally goes through a special filtration process in order to increase the concentration of protein. Typically whey concentrate may contain 70-80% protein whereas whey isolate would normally contain at least 90% protein, with a much lower level of carbohydrate and fat than whey concentrate. Whey isolate will also have a higher level of branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs). BCAAs have been demonstrated to be effective at helping to maintain and increase muscle mass.

Some whey isolate will also contain partially pre-digested proteins – these have been pre-digested by a process of enzymatic hydrolisation – which are more readily absorbed into the blood stream and will therefore reach the muscles more quickly.

Whey protein isolate has proved particularly effective at promoting gains in muscle mass. Subjects were observed to gain 8 pounds more lean muscle than when using whey isolate than subjects using concentrate (Cribb et al., 2002).


Is whey protein effective?
Whey Protein has proven to be effective at increasing muscle size, muscle strength gains, and recovery from exercise.

How to take Protein?
It is generally recommended that bodybuilders/strength training athletes should be consuming 1.5-2.0g of protein per kg of bodyweight. Therefore if you weigh 100kg, your protein needs would be 150-250g of protein per day. If your diet provides 100g of protein then you should be consuming an additional 50-100g of protein per day. This can easily be achieved through supplementing your diet with whey concentrate or isolate. Protein should be consumed just before a workout (30-60mins before) and immediately afterwards (within 60mins) since protein supplementation close to training has a greater muscle building effect (Levenhagen et al., 2002).

When not training athletes can help to keep the body in a positive growth state by consuming approximately 25g of protein (the body cannot utilise more than 25g at one time) every 2-3hours. Many athletes like to take protein last thing at night to help to promote muscle growth overnight and to reduce muscle breakdown. Since whey isolate and concentrate are fully absorbed and utilised within 1-2 hours of drinking they are not necessarily a good source of protein to take overnight. Consider using a slower digesting protein overnight such as casein which will keep protein levels elevated for longer in the blood.

References

Cribb, P. J., Williams, A. D., Hayes, A. and Carey, F. (2002) The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine. Medicine and science in Sports and Exercise. 34, S1688.

Lands, L. C., Grey, V. L. and Smountas, A. A. (1999) Effect of supplementation with a cysteine donor on muscular performance. Journal of Applied Physiology. 87, 1381-1385.

Levenhagen, D. K., Carr, C., Carlson, M. G., Maron, D. J., Borel, M. J. and Flakoll, P. J. (2002) Postexercise protein intake enhances whole body and leg protein accretion in humans. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 34, 828-837.

Markus, C. R., Olivier, B., Panhuysen, G. E. M., Gugten, J. V. D., Alles, M. S., Tuiten, A., Westenberg, H. G. M., Fekkes, D., Koppeschaar, H. F. and De Haan, E. E. H. F. (2000) The bovine protein alpha-lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stress. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 71, 1536-1544.
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di ZMA>>

What is ZMA?
ZMA stands for Zinc l-monomethionine aspartate and is a special blend of: Zinc 30mg (as l-monmethionine and aspartate), Magnesium 450mg (as aspartate), and Vitamin B6 10.5mg (as pyridoxine HCL). ZMA is useful for all athletes as it helps to guard against depletion, of these three important minerals, and vitamins, that often occurs following intense or prolonged training.

Who Should Consider Taking ZMA supplements?
Anyone looking to improve their rate of recovery, reduce the risk of overtraining, increase muscle size and strength should benefit from ZMA supplements.

Summary of ZMA's Phyiological Effects:

Significantly increases the level of free testosterone
Prevents IGF-1 (Insulin growth factor) levels from decreasing during intense training
Increases strength gains
Reduces muscle cramps
Improves recovery

ZMA Research
This special combination of vitamins and minerals has been demonstrated to prevent the exercise induced drop in testosterone levels that often occurs following intense periods of training (Brilla and Conte, 1999). Brilla and Conte, 1999, studied the effect of ZMA on American footballers. The footballers were divided into two groups, one taking ZMA and one took a "dummy" (placebo) supplement that would have no physiological effect. The ZMA group showed a 33.5% increase in free testosterone and a 32.4% increase in total testosterone levels whereas there was a decrease in testosterone levels in the placebo group. The ZMA group also showed a 3.6% increase in the levels of IGF-1 (insulin growth factor) whereas IGF-1 levels decreased by 21.5% in the placebo group.

The positive effects on hormone levels in the ZMA group led to an 11.6% increase in strength over the 8 weeks of the study. This was a 252% greater gain in strength than was experienced in the placebo group. It is the positive effects on maintaining the hormone levels following intense training that make ZMA an appealing supplement for athletes. This should help to improve recovery between sessions and help to reduce the risk of overtraining.

It should also be noted that Zinc, Magnesium, and Vitamin B6 all have positive effects on mood and may help to alleviate the low feeling sometimes experienced during heavy training.

Many companies claim to have ZMA products, but unless they contain the specific types, shown above, of the minerals zinc and magnesium and vitamin B6 and in the above dose specification; then they are not using the correct formulation that was used in the above research and should not be making claims comparing their products to the original

Is ZMA effective?
ZMA has proven to be effective at increasing strength gains, free testosterone levels, and recovery from exercise.

How to take ZMA?
It is recommended that you take the above dose of ZMA last thing at night on an empty stomach.

References

Brilla, L. R. and Conte, V. (1999) A novel zinc and magnesium formulation (ZMA) increases anabolic hormones and strength in athletes. Medicine and Science in sports and Exercise, 31, 483.
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di caffeina>>

What is Caffeine?
Caffeine is the active substance (a methylxanthine) found in tea, coffee and guarana. Caffeine has long been considered an ergogenic aid capable of improving physical performance. It works by activating the central nervous system and sympathetic nervous system. This has led to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) setting an upper limit for the legal use of caffei


Who Should Consider Taking Caffeine supplements?
Because of the positive effect that caffeine has on fat metabolism, endurance athletes can use it to enhance endurance race performance. Caffeine may also prove beneficial during short intense efforts such as weight training, however research has been, generally, inconclusive as to whether caffeine is beneficial to strength/power athletes. It should be noted that caffeine consumption is best reserved for competition since prolonged use reduces the beneficial effects of caffeine. Because caffeine acts as a potent thermogenic (fat burner) it may also prove useful for weight loss.

Summary of Caffeine's Phyiological Effects:

Enhanced endurance exercise performance
Enhanced sprint/short-term exercise performance
Enhanced metabolic rate
Increased rate of fat metabolism
Enhanced fat loss
Improved mental function in the short term

Caffeine Research
Research has demonstrated that caffeine, improves 1500m run performance by approximately 4.2secs (Wiles et al.,1992) as well as long term endurance performance (Costil et al., 1977; Costil et al., 1978; Ivy, 1979; McNaughton, 1987). The improved endurance performance is due primarily to a significant increase in the level of free fatty acids in blood plasma (Bucci, 1993). The increased levels of free fatty acids in the blood would enhance the ability to use free fatty acids as fuel, and thus spares valuable carbohydrate stores. It should be noted that greater benefits are achieved if you are unaccustomed to consuming caffeine products (Spriet, 1995).

Caffeine is believed to work by: 1) activating the central and sympathetic nervous system; 2) improving excitation of active muscle; 3) increasing the secretion of catecholamines (stress hormones which increase the release of free fatty acids in the blood); 4) by stimulating an increase in the rate of fat metabolism which helps to preserve the glycogen stores, and; 5) by increase in potassium accumulation in the blood.

Research has also demonstrated that caffeine can enhance performance during short term, high intensity exercise (Doherty, 1998) and therefore may be beneficial for strength/power athletes as well as endurance athletes.

Because caffeine enhances fat burning, within our body, there has been much interest into whether it may promote fat loss. Research has shown that caffeine consumption before exercise enhances fat burning during exercise by around 30% (Spriet, 1995) as well as increasing the amount of calories burned after exercise (Chad and Quigley, 1989).

Is Caffeine effective?
Research has demonstrated that caffeine is effective at enhancing both endurance and short term exercise performance. It can also enhance mental abilities, such as mental focus and reaction time, and is a potent thermogenic that increases fat burning and may aid weight loss. However, some people can suffer negative side effects such as heart palpitations and nervousness.

How to take Caffeine?
Firstly, it is important to note that you will not gain the same benefits from the consumption of coffee as from taking a caffeine supplement. The reason for this appears to be due to another, as yet unknown substance, within coffee, that inhibits the positive effects of caffeine. A general recommendation to improve endurance, or power, performance would be to consume 150-200mg of caffeine 30-60 minutes prior to competition &#8211; this will not result in a positive doping result (unless you weigh less than 35kg!). It should be noted that athletes who regularly consume large quantities of caffeine will gain less of a benefit from its consumption due to a decreased physiological response. Also some athletes may suffer with increased anxiety levels following caffeine supplementation and therefore, for those athletes, any positive effect may be outweighed by the negative effects. Therefore athletes intending on using caffeine for an important race should check their response to caffeine in a training situation before using it in competition.

For weight loss, consider using 150-200 milligrams every 4-5 hours. For, best results combine with regular exercise (at least 3 times per week). Don&#8217;t consume high levels of caffeine for more then 2-3 weeks at a time. Long term caffeine use should be avoided since caffeine consumption causes an increase in the levels of stress hormones. Long term exposure to high stress hormone levels will leave you feeling drained and run down. If you combine this with heavy training you put yourself at risk of over-training.

References

Bucci, L. (1993) Nutrients as ergogenic aids for sports and exercise. Boca Raton, FL:CRC Press.

Chad, K. and Quigley, B. (1989) The effects of substrate utilisation, manipulated by caffeine, on post-exercise oxygen consumption in untrained female subjects. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 59, 48-54.

Costill, D. L., Coyle, E. F., Dalsky, G., Evans, W., Fink, W. and Hoopes, D. (1977) Effects of elevated plasma FFA and insulin on muscle glycogen usage during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 43, 695-699.

Costill, D. L., Dalsky, G. P. and Fink, W. J. (1978) Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 10, 155-158.

Doherty, M. (1998) The effects of caffeine on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit and short-term running performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 8, 95-104.

Ivy, J. L., Costill, D. L., Fink, W. J. and Lower, R. W. (1979) Influence of caffeine and carbohydrate feeding on endurance performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 11, 6-11.

McNaughton, L. (1987) Two levels of caffeine ingestion on blood lactate and free fatty acid responses during incremental exercise. Research Quarterly in Exercise and Sport. 58, 255-259.

Spriet, L. L. (1995) Caffeine and performance. International Jounal of Sport Nutrition. 5, S84-99.

Wiles, J. D., Bird, S. R., Hopkins, B. A. and Riley, B. A. (1992) Effect of caffeinated coffee on running speed, respiratory factors, blood lactate and perceived exertion during 1500-m treadmill running. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 26 (2), 116-120.
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di carnosina>>

What is Carnosine?
Carnosine, a naturally occuring histamine containing compound, is a potent antioxidant found in particualrly high concentrations in the heart, the brain and skeletal muscles. Carnosine has a powerful protective effect in the brain and is also believed to enhance exercise performance by buffering the build up of hydrogen ions within muscle cells.

Who Should Consider Taking Carnosine?
Carnosine may be of benefit to people looking to enhance exercise performance and to reduce the damaging effects of oxidative stress. Carnosine is believed to have positive effects on ageing and animal studie have found it may slow the ageing process. Since acrnosine is found exclusively in animal tissues it should be especially beneficial for vegetarians.

Summary of Carnosine's Physiological Effects:

Acts as an antioxidant
Binds with, and removes, toxic metals
Enhances cellular lifespan
Reduces damage to DNA
Protects against oxidation of "bad" LDL cholesterol
Has a protective effect on the brain
Reduces the build up of hydrogen ions
Improves contraction of cardiac muscle cells

Carnosine Research
Carnosine has been shown to have many health benefits. It acts as an antixidant, it chelates (binds with) toxic metals - transporting them out of the body, and buffers against the build up of damaging hydrogen ions (Holliday and McFarland, 2000, Hipkiss, A. R. 2006). Not only was Carnosine found to enhance cellular lifespan it also rejuvenated ageing cells (Holliday and McFarland, 2000, Hipkiss et al., 2001).

Researchers have found that Carnosine can also extend the lifespan in human cell cultures, and significantly reduced damage to telomeric DNA (Shao, et al., 2004). In addition, Carnosine appears to protect the lining of arteries from furring up by inhibiting the oxidation of the bad "LDL" cholesterol (Decker et al., 2001; Seifulla et al., 2005).

Carnosine is believed to have a powerful protective effect on the brain by protecting against damage to the blood vessels of the brain and may help to reduce the build up of plaques within the brain (Salah et al., 2000).

Carnosine is found mainly in fast-twitch muscle fibres (Type II fibres) and is believed to play a role in enhancing maximal exercise performance. One positive effect that Carnosine has on exercise performance is increased buffering of the build up of hydrogen ions when lactic acid is formed (Holliday and McFarland, 2000;Begum et al., 2005). Recent research (Suzuki et al., 2006) found that Carnosine significantly enhanced the buffering capacity of the blood. As well as buffering increased hydrogen ion concentration Carnosine also regulates enzyme activity and inhibits the breakdown of proteins. By protecting against protein breakdown Carnosine should help to enhance post exercise recovery.

Research has shown that Carnosine levels were double the level in resistance trained individuals, compared with controls (Tallon et al., 2005), indicating the importance of having adequate Carnosine levels during maximal exercise.

Carnosine has also been demonstrated to improve the function of cardiac muscle cells (Roberts et al., 2000; Salah et al., 2000). This is thought to be mainly due to its regulation of calcium concentrations within cardiac muscle cells.

Is Carnosine effective?
Research shows many positive health effects associated with Carnosine. It should alsoprove beneficial to athletes, however, further research is needed before this can be fully verified.

How to take Carnosine?
A general recommendation is to consume around 200-400mg daily, in a divided dose.

References (To Be Completed)

Begum et al., 2005

Decker et al., 2001

Hipkiss et al., 2001

Hipkiss, A. R. 2006

Holliday and McFarland, 2000

Roberts et al., 2000

Salah et al., 2000

Seifulla et al., 2005

Shao, et al., 2004

Suzuki et al., 2006

Tallon et al., 2005
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di Coq10>>

What is CoQ10?
Coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10) is a powerful antioxidant that protects against the damaging effects of free-radicals. Free-radicals are the cell damaging particles that are by products of metabolic processes within the body, particular oxidation. CoQ10 is found in every cell in the human body and as such is also called ubiquinone, which literally means everywhere. CoQ10 is present naturally in our diet, but only in small amounts, in fish and meat.

Who Should Consider Taking Co Q10 supplements?
CoEnzyme Q10 (CoQ10) may be beneficial to anybody who takes part in regular aerobic exercise (runners, swimmers, cyclists, footballers etc.).

Summary of CoQ10's Physiological Effects:

Powerful antioxidant protecting against cellular damage by free-radicals
Can improve heart function
May lower blood pressure

Co Q10 Research
Co-Q10 plays an important role in the transfer of energy from food and is also known to improve the transport of oxygen into cells. It is found in particularly high levels in the cells of the heart muscle. As we age the level of CoQ10 declines. Also, among patients suffering with congenital heart disease the level of Co-Q10 within the heart muscle is significantly lower than is found in healthy individuals of the same age.

CoQ10 has been used to treat congestive heart failure (Morisco et al., 1993) and has also been demonstrated to have a positive effect by reducing blood pressure (Gaby, 1996). It should be noted that congestive heart patients taking Co-Q10 should not discontinue use of CoQ10 supplements unless advised by a doctor or physician to do so.

It is because of the positive effect on heart function, and Co-Q10's ability to increase oxygen transport into cells, that has made it a popular supplement with endurance athletes.

Is CoQ10 effective?
Co-Q10 has proved to be beneficial for the treatment of congestive heart patients but there it is unclear as to whether it would be of benefit to normal healthy individuals.

How to take Co Q10?
It is generally recommended that athletes take 30-100mg of CoQ10 per day. Since Co-Q10 is fat soluble it is best taken with meals to help to improve the rate of its absorption.

References

Gaby, A. R. (1996) The role of coenzyme Q10 in clinical medicine: part II. Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and infertility. Alternative Medicine Reviews. 1, 168-175.

Morisco, C., Trimarco, B. and Condorelli, M. (1993) Effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with congestive heart failure: a long-term multicenter randomized study. Clinical investigations. 71, S134-136.
 

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<<Clicca qui per visualizzare i prodotti a base di vitamine/minerali>>

Vitamina A

Necessaria per una buona vista, specie di notte. Svolge un'azione protettiva delle mucose e degli epiteti in genere, concorrendo a potenziarne il valore di barriera alle infezioni. La vitamina A inoltre favorisce la crescita, favorendo lo sviluppo scheletrico.

Vitamina D

Aiuta l&#8217;organismo ad utilizzare il calcio e il fosforo per rafforzare ossa e denti.Regola il bilancio di calcio dell'organismo aumentando il livello ematico attraverso un aumento dell'assorbimento intestinale.

Vitamina E

Proprietà antiossidanti protettive; importante per cuore e circolazione, nervi, muscoli e globuli rossi. Influisce sulla stabilizzazione delle membrane cellulari e dei depositi di grasso.

Vitamina K

La vitamina K ha azione antiemorragica, favorendo la produzione dei fattori di coagulazione da parte del fegato.

Vitamina B1

Ha un ruolo essenziale nel metabolismo dei carboidrati, intervenendo in decine di reazioni a catena.

Vitamina B2

Viene assorbita nell'intestino tenue e trasportata nel fegato e in altri tessuti, dove si trasforma in coenzima Flavinmono nucleotide (FMN) e Flavindinucleotide (FAD) intervenendo in reazioni di ossidoriduzione importanti nel quadro metabolico energetico cellulare.

Vitamina B6

Utile per pelle e nervi sani. Partecipa al metabolismo dei glucidi e degli acidi grassi essenziali, degli aminoacidi e di sostanze azotate.

Vitamina B12

E' necessaria soprattutto nella produzione di globuli rossi , di conseguenza il segno più evidente della sua carenza è una forma di anemia.

Acido pantotenico

Essenziale per il rilascio di energia derivante dal cibo, necessaria per una crescita sana e per la produzione di anticorpi.

Acido folico

Particolarmente importante come integratore per le donne in età feconda; essenziale per la crescita e lariproduzione delle cellule, in particolare dei globuli rossi. Aiuta a mantenere normali livelli di omocisteina.

Biotina

Svolge un ruolo fondamentale nel metabolismo di lipidi, glucidi e proteine ed in particolare è un coenzima in diverse carbossilasi.

Vitamina PP

Partecipa come coenzima alla catena respiratoria, e agisce inoltre da cofattore nell'ossidazione degli acidi grassi ed in un gran numero di reazioni di ossidoriduzione con la funzione di cedere o acquistare ioni idrogeno.

Vitamina C

Aiuta i globuli bianchi a sconfiggere le infezioni. Necessaria anche per una pelle sana, miglioral&#8217;assorbimento del ferro di origine non-alimentare. Impedisce l'ossidazione dei tessuti corporei bloccando i radicali liberi dell'ossigeno.

Beta Carotene

Antiossidante che contribuisce a &#8216;spazzare&#8217; i radicali liberi; in caso di necessità, viene convertito in vitamina A dall&#8217;organismo.

Tiamina

Importante per il rilascio di energia dai carboidrati; favorisce il funzionamento del sistema nervoso.

Riboflavina

Benefica per la vista; necessaria per la conversione di proteine, grassi e carboidrati in energia.

Niacina

Vitale per il rilascio dell&#8217;energia in tessuti e cellule. Aiuta a mantenere sani sistema nervoso e apparatodigerente.



10 minerali essenziali:

Calcio

Il minerale più abbondante nell&#8217;organismo, mantiene le ossa forti e i denti sani; necessario per il buon funzionamento di nervi e muscoli.

Fosforo

Necessario per una normale struttura ossea e per il suo mantenimento; essenziale per l&#8217;assorbimento del glucosio e per la produzione di energia.

Ferro

Essenziale per il trasporto dell&#8217;ossigeno attraverso l&#8217;emoglobina dei globuli rossi.

Magnesio

Essenziale per il funzionamento di nervi e muscoli e per il rilascio dell&#8217;energia. Benefico per i sistemi riproduttivo e immunitario. Serve anche al recupero e al rinnovamento dei tessuti.

Iodio

Aiuta a mantenere la funzione della tiroide.

Rame

Componente (con zinco e manganese) di un sistema enzimatico antiossidante. Necessario per la formazione della melanina e per il metabolismo del ferro.

Manganese

Componente (con zinco e rame) di un sistema enzimatico antiossidante. Necessario per ossa sane e per un efficiente sistema nervoso.

Cromo

Coadiuva il bilanciamento dello zucchero nel sangue.

Selenio

Opera insieme alla vitamina E come antiossidante nella neutralizzazione dei radicali liberi.

Zinco

Benefico per i sistemi riproduttivo e immunitario. Serve anche al recupero e al rinnovo dei tessuti.
 
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