Alimentazione: il giusto timing [ENG]

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International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Nutrient timing.


Abstract
Position Statement: The position of the Society regarding nutrient timing and the intake of
carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in reference to healthy, exercising individuals is summarized by
the following eight points:

1.) Maximal endogenous glycogen stores are best promoted by following
a high-glycemic, high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (600 – 1000 grams CHO or ~8 – 10 g CHO/kg/d), and ingestion of free amino acids and protein (PRO) alone or in combination with CHO before resistance exercise can maximally stimulate protein synthesis.

2.) During exercise, CHO should be consumed at a rate of 30 – 60 grams of CHO/hour in a 6 – 8% CHO solution (8 – 16 fluid ounces) every 10 – 15 minutes. Adding PRO to create a CHO:PRO ratio of 3 – 4:1 may increase endurance performance and maximally promotes glycogen re-synthesis during acute and subsequent bouts of endurance exercise.

3.) Ingesting CHO alone or in combination with PRO during resistance
exercise increases muscle glycogen, offsets muscle damage, and facilitates greater training adaptations after either acute or prolonged periods of supplementation with resistance training.

4.) Post-exercise (within 30 minutes) consumption of CHO at high dosages (8 – 10 g CHO/kg/day) have been shown to stimulate muscle glycogen re-synthesis, while adding PRO (0.2 g – 0.5 g PRO/kg/day) to CHO at a ratio of 3 – 4:1 (CHO: PRO) may further enhance glycogen re-synthesis.

5.) Post-exercise ingestion (immediately to 3 h post) of amino acids, primarily essential amino acids, has been shown to stimulate robust increases in muscle protein synthesis, while the addition of CHO may stimulate even greater levels of protein synthesis. Additionally, pre-exercise consumption of a CHO + PRO supplement may result in peak levels of protein synthesis.

6.) Durin consistent, prolonged resistance training, post-exercise consumption of varying doses of CHO + PRO supplements in varying dosages have been shown to stimulate improvements in strength and body composition when compared to control or placebo conditions.

7.) The addition of creatine (Cr) (0.1 g Cr/kg/day) to a CHO + PRO supplement may facilitate even greater adaptations to resistance training.

8.) Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of
whole foods, nutrients extracted from food, and other sources. The timing of the energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients are likely the attributes which allow for enhanced recovery and tissue repair following high-volume exercise, augmented muscle protein synthesis, and improved mood states when compared with unplanned or traditional strategies of nutrient
intake.


Summary of pre-exercise nutrient ingestion findings
• Glycogen stores are limited and depend largely on the nutritional status and the intensity and training level of the athlete [7,14]. Endogenous glycogen stores during moderate to high intensity levels (65 – 85% VO2max) of
exercise may only last from 90 min to 3 h [15].
• Exercise intensity, pace and work output decrease as glycogen levels diminish [14]. Depletion of glycogen is associated with increased levels of muscle tissue breakdown and suppression of the immune system [16,17].
• Maximal endogenous glycogen stores are best promoted by following a high-glycemic, high-CHO diet (600 – 1000 grams or ~8 – 10 g/kg/d) [2,3,15].
• The optimal CHO and PRO content of a pre-exercise meal is dependent upon a number of factors including exercise duration and fitness level, but general guidelines recommend ingestion of 1 – 2 grams CHO/kg and 0.15 – 0.25 grams PRO/kg 3 – 4 hours before competition [15].
• Pre-exercise ingestion of essential amino acids or PRO alone increases muscle protein synthesis. In addition, ingesting PRO + CHO pre-exercise has been shown to produce significantly greater levels of muscle protein synthesis [9,31].
• Regular ingestion of various PRO sources in conjunction with CHO stimulates greater increases in strength and favorably impacts body composition when compared to CHO alone [8,10,11].


Summary of during exercise nutrient findings
• CHO availability during exercise and muscle glycogen levels are major determinants of endurance performance. CHO administration becomes even more important when muscle glycogen levels are low at the onset of exercise [35,42].
• As exercise duration increases beyond 60 min, exogenous sources of CHO become important to maintain blood glucose and muscle glycogen stores. This CHO source should supply 30 – 60 grams of CHO per hour and can typically be delivered by drinking 1 – 2 cups of a 6 – 8% CHO solution (8 – 16 fluid ounces) every 10 – 15 minutes [49].
• Mixing different forms of CHO has been shown to increase muscle CHO oxidation from 1.0 g CHO/min to levels ranging from 1.2 g – 1.75 g CHO/min [50,52-54]; an effect which is associated with an improvement in time
trial performance [56].
• Glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltodextrin can be used in combination, but large amounts of fructose are not recommended due to the greater likelihood of gastrointestinal problems.
• The addition of PRO to CHO at a ratio of 3 – 4:1 (CHO: PRO) has been shown to increase endurance performance during both acute exercise and subsequent bouts of endurance exercise [57,58].
• Ingesting CHO alone, or in combination with PRO, during resistance exercise increases muscle glycogen stores [40], offsets muscle damage [37], and facilitates greater training adaptations after acute [38,39] and prolonged
periods of resistance training [41].


Summary of post-exercise nutrient ingestion findings
• Post-exercise (within 30 minutes) consumption of CHO at high dosages (8 – 10 g CHO/kg/day) has been shown to stimulate muscle glycogen re-synthesis [15,65].
• Adding PRO (0.2 g – 0.5 g PRO/kg/day) to CHO at a ratio of approximately 3: 1 (CHO: PRO) has been shown to stimulate glycogen re-synthesis to a greater extent [69].
• Post-exercise ingestion (immediately after through 3 hours post) of amino acids, primarily EAAs, have been shown to stimulate robust increases in muscle PRO synthesis [73,74,83]. The addition of CHO may increase PRO synthesis even more, while pre-exercise consumption may result in the best response of all [9].
• During prolonged resistance training, post-exercise consumption of CHO + PRO supplements in varying amounts have been shown to stimulate improvements in strength and body composition when compared to control, placebo, or CHO-only conditions [10,87,90].
• The addition of Cr (0.1 g Cr/kg/day) to a CHO + PRO supplement may facilitate even greater adaptations to resistance training [84,88].




Conclusion
The scientific literature associated with nutrient timing is an extremely popular, and thus ever-changing, area of research. Upon reviewing the available literature, the following conclusions can be drawn at this point in time:
• Prolonged exercise (> 60 – 90 min) of moderate to high intensity exercise will deplete the internal stores of energy, and prudent timing of nutrient delivery can help offset these changes.
• During intense exercise, regular consumption (10 – 15 fl.) of CHO/electrolyte solution delivering 6 – 8% CHO (6 – 8 g CHO/100 ml fluid) should be consumed every 15 – 20 min to sustain blood glucose levels.
• Glucose, fructose, sucrose and other high-glycemic CHO sources are easily digested, but fructose consumption should be minimized as it is absorbed at a slower rate and increases the likelihood of gastrointestinal problems.
• The addition of PRO (0.15 – 0.25 g PRO/kg/day) to CHO at all time points, especially post-exercise, is well tolerated and may promote greater restoration of muscle glycogen.
• Ingestion of 6 – 20 grams of EAAs and 30 – 40 grams of high-glycemic CHO within three hours after an exercise bout and immediately before exercise have been shown to significantly stimulate muscle PRO synthesis.
• Daily post-exercise ingestion of a CHO + PRO supplement promotes greater increases in strength and improvements in lean tissue and body fat % during regular resistance training.
• Milk PRO sources (e.g. whey and casein) exhibit different kinetic digestion patterns and may subsequently differ in their support of training adaptations
 

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WNC2

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Mi sembra siano già in commercio alcuni prodotti per uso in borraccia "durante" che hanno u rapporto cho/pro 4:1.
Le whey neutre potrebbero essere una buona scelta?
In pratica durante e dopo si può usare la stessa formula...

io non mi fisserei mai troppo sui numeri, poi secondo me è una finezza tecnica, se magari l'aggiunta di whey mi rende le bevande meno gradevoli, piuttosto mi porto una barretta proteica non ricoperta e me ne mangio un pezzo ogni ora.

ci sono dei gainer al 25% proteico, ma se uno vuole percorrere la strada, io aggiungerei un goccio di whey neutre ai CHO in borraccia.

oppure un prodotto proteico da bere, già al gusto arancia o limone, tipo le whey amino di weider, bottiglia da500ml con 30gr d iwehy isolate, ne metti 100/150ml in borraccia con le CHO e ti sei fatto il blend
 

lucarav

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International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Nutrient timing.


Abstract
Position Statement: The position of the Society regarding nutrient timing and the intake of
carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in reference to healthy, exercising individuals is summarized by
the following eight points:

<CUT>

complimenti WNC2 questo per me è stato l'articolo più interessante che hai postato, una specie di riassunto dell'alimentazione prima durante e dopo l'allenamento. o-o

Anche il PDF completo è comprensibilissimo e molto utile, di solito sono dei mattoni spaventosi, capibili solo da medici ;pirlùn^
 
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WNC2

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complimenti WNC2 questo per me è stato l'articolo più interessante che hai postato, una specie di riassunto dell'alimentazione prima durante e dopo l'allenamento. o-o

Anche il PDF completo è comprensibilissimo e molto utile, di solito sono dei mattoni spaventosi, capibili solo da medici ;pirlùn^

si, spesso lo studio completo è troppo tecnico da essere comprensibile e tutto sommato alla fine del discorso, quello che conta sono comprendere l'obiettivo della ricerca e le conclusioni, poi il perché e il percome giustamente interessano pochi, io posto lo studio completo nel caso interessasse a qualcuno e per citare gli autori
 
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Obix

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????
Davide come ti avevo già confermato al telefono ho provato di persona questa integrazione nel durante:
E l'ho provata sabato scorso in uscita tirata con la squadra e la trovo ottima!!!
Gamba sempre piena e lucidità mentale anche i compagni se ne sono accorti!!!!
Ciao
 

marko

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come colazione pregara (granfondo) visto che molto spesso non si ha la possibilita' dato che si parte alla mattina presto ,di fare colazione 3-4 ore prima (per esempio una 9 colli con partenza alle 6) cosa consiglieresti di mangiare 2 ore prima?
un "blend" con delle proteine in polvere + maltodestrine/vitargo in rapporto 3:1 potrebbe essere una buona idea?
 

WNC2

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ciao
come colazione pregara (granfondo) visto che molto spesso non si ha la possibilita' dato che si parte alla mattina presto ,di fare colazione 3-4 ore prima (per esempio una 9 colli con partenza alle 6) cosa consiglieresti di mangiare 2 ore prima?
un "blend" con delle proteine in polvere + maltodestrine/vitargo in rapporto 3:1 potrebbe essere una buona idea?

secondo me 2 ore sono più che sufficienti per gestire un piatto abbondante di pasta condito in maniera molto leggera, una spruzzata di sugo di pomodoro e 2 cucchiai d'olio d'oliva, oppure un'insalata di riso preparata la sera prima non troppo unta senza le cose pesanti come i würstel & C.

se vuoi fare il sofisticato per mantenere la ratio cho/pro ti fai 3/4 albumi oppure un bel toast con un salume magro oppure 30gr di whey in acqua.

prima di una granfondo o di un'uscita lunga devi farti almeno 1000/1500kcal di colazione, non ci sono ca**i, il resto son chiacchiere, per ottenerle da maltodestrine ti ce ne vogliono oltre 300gr e una betoniera per impastarle :mrgreen:

il tutto dando per scontato che hai seguito la stessa alimentazione la sera prima con un pò più proteine.

le prime volte potrebbe essere difficoltoso perchè uno non è abituato, ma ci si allena anche a nutrirsi, in america la chiamano proprio "nutrition training"
 

WNC2

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in relazione alla frase:
"Summary of post-exercise nutrient ingestion findings
• Post-exercise (within 30 minutes) consumption of CHO at high dosages (8 – 10 g CHO/kg/day) has been shown to stimulate muscle glycogen re-synthesis [15,65]."

ho cercato gli studi di riferimento:

il primo è:
"Nutritional needs of elite endurance athletes. Part I: Carbohydrate and fluid requirements."


Authors: Tarnopolsky, M. A.; Gibala, M.; Jeukendrup, A. E.; Phillips, S. M.
Journal: European Journal of Sport Science 2005 Vol. 5 No. 1 pp. 3-14


abstract:
Both carbohydrate depletion and dehydration have been shown to decrease performance whilst severe dehydration can also cause adverse health effects. Therefore carbohydrate and fluid requirements are increased with exercise. Ingestion of 200-300 g of CHO 3-4 h prior to exercise is an effective strategy in order to meet daily CHO demands and increase CHO availability during the subsequent exercise period.

There is little evidence that CHO during the hour immediately prior to exercise has adverse effects such as rebound hypoglycaemia.

CHO ingestion during exercise has been shown to improve performance as measured by enhanced work output or decreased exercise time to complete a fixed amount of work. Recent studies have demonstrated that exogenous CHO oxidation rates can be increased by ingesting combinations of CHO that use different intestinal CHO transporters.

After exercise maximal muscle glycogen re-synthesis rates can be achieved by ingesting CHO at a rate of ~1.2 g/kg/h, in relatively frequent (e.g., 15-30 min) intervals for up to 5 h following exercise.

Protein amino acid mixtures may increase glycogen synthesis further but only if relatively small amounts of CHO are ingested. Hypohydration and hyperthermia alone have negative effects on performance but their combination is particularly serious, both in terms of performance and health. Dehydration can be prevented by fluid ingestion pre exercise and during exercise. Because of large individual differences it is difficult to individualise the advice. Perhaps the best guidance for athletes is to weigh themselves to assess fluid losses during training and racing and limit weight losses to 1% during exercise lasting longer than 1.5 h. Excessive fluid intake has been associated with hyponatremia. Post exercise the volume of fluid ingested and sodium intake are important determinants of rehydration.
 
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WNC2

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questo è l'abstract dello studio "65"

Abstract
The pattern of muscle glycogen synthesis following glycogen-depleting exercise occurs in two phases. Initially, there is a period of rapid synthesis of muscle glycogen that does not require the presence of insulin and lasts about 30-60 minutes. This rapid phase of muscle glycogen synthesis is characterised by an exercise-induced translocation of glucose transporter carrier protein-4 to the cell surface, leading to an increased permeability of the muscle membrane to glucose. Following this rapid phase of glycogen synthesis, muscle glycogen synthesis occurs at a much slower rate and this phase can last for several hours. Both muscle contraction and insulin have been shown to increase the activity of glycogen synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogen synthesis. Furthermore, it has been shown that muscle glycogen concentration is a potent regulator of glycogen synthase. Low muscle glycogen concentrations following exercise are associated with an increased rate of glucose transport and an increased capacity to convert glucose into glycogen.

The highest muscle glycogen synthesis rates have been reported when large amounts of carbohydrate (1.0-1.85 g/kg/h) are consumed immediately post-exercise and at 15-60 minute intervals thereafter, for up to 5 hours post-exercise.

When carbohydrate ingestion is delayed by several hours, this may lead to ~50% lower rates of muscle glycogen synthesis.

The addition of certain amino acids and/or proteins to a carbohydrate supplement can increase muscle glycogen synthesis rates, most probably because of an enhanced insulin response.

However, when carbohydrate intake is high (> or =1.2 g/kg/h) and provided at regular intervals, a further increase in insulin concentrations by additional supplementation of protein and/or amino acids does not further increase the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis. Thus, when carbohydrate intake is insufficient (<1.2 g/kg/h), the addition of certain amino acids and/or proteins may be beneficial for muscle glycogen synthesis. Furthermore, ingestion of insulinotropic protein and/or amino acid mixtures might stimulate post-exercise net muscle protein anabolism.

Suggestions have been made that carbohydrate availability is the main limiting factor for glycogen synthesis. A large part of the ingested glucose that enters the bloodstream appears to be extracted by tissues other than the exercise muscle (i.e. liver, other muscle groups or fat tissue) and may therefore limit the amount of glucose available to maximise muscle glycogen synthesis rates. Furthermore, intestinal glucose absorption may also be a rate-limiting factor for muscle glycogen synthesis when large quantities (>1 g/min) of glucose are ingested following exercise.

FONTE: PUBMED - National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine
 

bt3

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secondo me 2 ore sono più che sufficienti per gestire un piatto abbondante di pasta condito in maniera molto leggera, una spruzzata di sugo di pomodoro e 2 cucchiai d'olio d'oliva, oppure un'insalata di riso preparata la sera prima non troppo unta senza le cose pesanti come i würstel & C.
L'ISSN, nell'articolo proposto in questa discussione, consiglia 1-2 g/kg BW di CHO + 0.15-0.25 g/kg BW di PRO, 3-4 ore prima dell'evento.
 

WNC2

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L'ISSN, nell'articolo proposto in questa discussione, consiglia 1-2 g/kg BW di CHO + 0.15-0.25 g/kg BW di PRO, 3-4 ore prima dell'evento.


A parte l'enorme divario di dosaggio da 1 a 2 è il doppio, mi sembra un po' tanto però inevitabile su un informazione così di carattere generale.


Certo se è possibile meglio ancora, ma uno la domenica va in bici alle nove e si alza alle cinque del mattino per fare colazione, soluzione ideale probabilmente ma difficilmente attuabile
 

mag

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A parte l'enorme divario di dosaggio da 1 a 2 è il doppio, mi sembra un po' tanto però inevitabile su un informazione così di carattere generale.


Certo se è possibile meglio ancora, ma uno la domenica va in bici alle nove e si alza alle cinque del mattino per fare colazione, soluzione ideale probabilmente ma difficilmente attuabile

Io tendenzialmente faccio cosi, colazione 3-4h prima
Sveglia alle 5:30, colazione da circa 2gr/kg, macchina alle 8 (non ho monti vicini), alle 8:30-9 in sella.
E bevo almeno una borraccia di acqua durante l'ora di spostamento

P.s. Ho sempre letto 1.5-2.0 per 3/4 h prima, non 1-2
 
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WNC2

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Io tendenzialmente faccio cosi, colazione 3-4h prima
Sveglia alle 5:30, colazione da circa 2gr/kg, macchina alle 8 (non ho monti vicini), alle 8:30-9 in sella.
E bevo almeno una borraccia di acqua durante l'ora di spostamento

P.s. Ho sempre letto 1.5-2.0 per 3/4 h prima, non 1-2


ottima buona volontà, che è la base di tutto o-o
 

bt3

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A parte l'enorme divario di dosaggio da 1 a 2 è il doppio, mi sembra un po' tanto però inevitabile su un informazione così di carattere generale.
Spiegazione

The optimal CHO and PRO content of a pre-exercise meal is dependent upon a number of factors including exercise duration and fitness level, but general guidelines recommend ingestion of 1 – 2 grams CHO/kg and 0.15 – 0.25 grams PRO/kg 3 – 4 hours before competition [15].